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Manual de Inglés

Enviado por epaisrael



  1. Verbos Irregulares en Inglés
  2. Pronombres personales
  3. Preposiciones básicas
  4. Tips para traducir
  5. Bibliografía

Verbos Irregulares en Inglés

INFINITIVO

(Base Form)

PASADO

SIMPLE

PARTICIPIO

PASADO

TRADUCCIÓN

Arise

Arose

Arisen

Surgir, Levantarse

Awake

Awoke

Awoken

Despertarse

Be/ am, are, is

Was / Were

Been

Ser / Estar

Bear

Bore

Borne / Born

Soportar, dar a luz

Beat

Beat

Beaten

Golpear

Become

Became

Become

Llegar a Ser

Begin

Began

Begun

Empezar

Bend

Bent

Bent

Doblar

Bet

Bet

Bet

Apostar

Bind

Bound

Bound

Atar, encuadernar

Bid

Bid

Bid

Pujar

Bite

Bit

Bitten

Morder

Bleed

Bled

Bled

Sangrar

Blow

Blew

Blown

Soplar

Break

Broke

Broken

Romper

Breed

Bred

Bred

Criar

Bring

Brought

Brought

Traer Llevar

Broadcast

Broadcast

Broadcast

Radiar

     

Build

Built

Built

Edificar

Burn

Burnt /Burned

Burnt / Burned

Quemar

Burst

Burst

Burst

Reventar

Buy

Bought

Bought

Comprar

Cast

Cast

Cast

Arrojar

Catch

Caught

Caught

Coger

Come

Came

Come

Venir

Cost

Cost

Cost

Costar

Cut

Cut

Cut

Cortar

Choose

Chose

Chosen

Elegir

Cling

Clung

Clung

Agarrarse

Creep

Crept

Crept

Arrastrarse

Deal

Dealt

Dealt

Tratar

Dig

Dug

Dug

Cavar

Do (Does)

Did

Done

Hacer

Draw

Drew

Drawn

Dibujar

Dream

Dreamt / Dreamed

Dreamt / Dreamed

Soñar

Drink

Drank

Drunk

Beber

Drive

Drove

Driven

Conducir

Eat

Ate

Eaten

Comer

Fall

Fell

Fallen

Caer

Feed

Fed

Fed

Alimentar

Feel

Felt

Felt

Sentir

Fight

Fought

Fought

Luchar

Find

Found

Found

Encontrar

Flee

Fled

Fled

Huir

Fly

Flew

Flown

Volar

Forbid

Forbade

Forbidden

Prohibir

Forget

Forgot

Forgotten

Olvidar

Forgive

Forgave

Forgiven

Perdonar

     

Freeze

Froze

Frozen

Helar

     

Get

Got

Got / Gotten

Obtener

Give

Gave

Given

Dar

Go (Goes)

Went

Gone

Ir

Grow

Grew

Grown

Crecer

Grind

Ground

Ground

Moler

Hang

Hung

Hung

Colgar

Have

Had

Had

Haber o Tener

Hear

Heard

Heard

Oir

Hide

Hid

Hidden

Ocultar

Hit

Hit

Hit

Golpear

Hold

Held

Held

Agarrar Celebrar

Hurt

Hurt

Hurt

Herir

Keep

Kept

Kept

Conservar

Know

Knew

Known

Saber Conocer

Kneel

Knelt

Knelt

Arrodillarse

Knit

Knit

Knit

Hacer punto

Lay

Laid

Laid

Poner

Lead

Led

Led

Conducir

Lean

Leant

Leant

Apoyarse

Leap

Leapt

Leapt

Brincar

Learn

Learnt / Learned

Learnt / Learned

Aprender

Leave

Left

Left

Dejar

Lend

Lent

Lent

Prestar

Let

Let

Let

Permitir

Lie

Lay

Lain

Echarse

Light

Lit

Lit

Encender

Lose

Lost

Lost

Perder

Make

Made

Made

Hacer

Mean

Meant

Meant

Significar

     

Meet

Met

Met

Encontrar

Mistake

Mistook

Mistaken

Equivocar

Overcome

Overcame

Overcome

Vencer

Pay

Paid

Paid

Pagar

Put

Put

Put

Poner

Read

Read

Read

Leer

Ride

Rode

Ridden

Montar

Ring

Rang

Rung

Llamar

Rise

Rose

Risen

Levantarse

Run

Ran

Run

Correr

Say

Said

Said

Decir

See

Saw

Seen

Ver

Seek

Sought

Sought

Buscar

Sell

Sold

Sold

Vender

Send

Sent

Sent

Enviar

Set

Set

Set

Poner(se)

Sew

Sewed

Sewed / Sewn

Coser

Shake

Shook

Shaken

Sacudir

Shear

Shore

Shorn

Esquilar

Shine

Shone

Shone

Brillar

Shoot

Shot

Shot

Disparar

Show

Showed

Shown

Mostrar

Shrink

Shrank

Shrunk

Encogerse

Shut

Shut

Shut

Cerrar

Sing

Sang

Sung

Cantar

Sink

Sank

Sunk

Hundir

Sit

Sat

Sat

Sentarse

Sleep

Slept

Slept

Dormir

Slide

Slid

Slid

Resbalar

Smell

Smelt

Smelt

Oler

Sow

Sowed

Sowed / Sown

Sembrar

Speak

Spoke

Spoken

Hablar

Speed

Sped

Sped

Acelerar

Spell

Spelt

Spelt

Deletrear

Spend

Spent

Spent

Gastar

Spill

Spilt / Spilled

Spilt / Spilled

Derramar

Spin

Spun

Spun

Hilar

Spit

Spat

Spat

Escupir

Split

Split

Split

Hender / partir / rajar

Spoil

Spoilt / Spoiled

Spoilt / Spoiled

Estropear

Spread

Spread

Spread

Extender

Spring

Sprang

Sprung

Saltar

Stand

Stood

Stood

Estar en pie

Steal

Stole

Stolen

Robar

Stick

Stuck

Stuck

Pegar Engomar

Sting

Stung

Stung

Picar

Stink

Stank/Stunk

Stunk

Apestar

Stride

Strode

Stridden

Dar zancadas

Strike

Struck

Struck

Golpear

Swear

Swore

Sworn

Jurar

Sweat

Sweat

Sweat

Sudar

Sweep

Swept

Swept

Barrer

Swell

Swelled

Swollen

Hinchar

Swim

Swam

Swum

Nadar

Swing

Swung

Swung

Columpiarse

Take

Took

Taken

Coger

Teach

Taught

Taught

Enseñar

Tear

Tore

Torn

Rasgar

Tell

Told

Told

Decir

Think

Thought

Thought

Pensar

Throw

Threw

Thrown

Arrojar Tirar

Thrust

Thrust

Thrust

Introducir

     

Tread

Trod

Trodden

Pisar, hollar

     

Understand

Understood

Understood

Entender

     

Undergo

Underwent

Undergone

Sufrir

     

Undertake

Undertook

Undertaken

Emprender

     

Wake

Woke

Woken

Despertarse

     

Wear

Wore

Worn

Llevar puesto

     

Weave

Wove

Woven

Tejer

     

Weep

Wept

Wept

Llorar

     

Wet

Wet

Wet

Mojar

     

Win

Won

Won

Ganar

     

Wind

Wound

Wound

Enrollar

     

Withdraw

Withdrew

Withdrawn

Retirarse

     

Wring

Wrung

Wrung

Torcer

     

Write

Wrote

Written

Escribir

     

Gramática

Presente simple:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+V (base form)+C

S+Aux (do)+Neg+V (base form)+C

I

You

We

They

eat

He

She

It

eats

I

You

We

They

Do not eat

He

She

It

Does not eat

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux (do)+S+V ( base form )+C+?

Do

I

You

We

They

Eat?

Does

He

She

It

Eat?

Excepción en tercera persona se añade una -s final. Cuando el verbo termina en -s, -ss, -sh, -o, -ch, -x se añade a la tercera persona singular la terminación '-es'. Cuando termina en 'y' precedida de consonante cambia la 'y' por 'ies'.

Para la forma negativa e interrogativa se recurre al verbo 'to do' que realiza una función auxiliar. En la tercera persona la forma 'do' cambia a 'does'.

Pasado simple:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+V (pasado)+C

S+Aux (did)+Neg+V ( base form )+C

I

You

We

They

studied

He

She

It

studied

I

You

We

They

did not study

He

She

It

did not study

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux (did)+S+V ( base form )+C+?

Did

I

You

We

They

study?

Did

He

She

It

study?

Nota:

El pasado simple funciona con el auxiliar 'did' para todas las personas (incluida la tercera persona singular 'he/she/it'). En la forma afirmativa, el auxiliar 'did' no aparece, empleamos en su lugar la terminación 'ed', esta es la forma de pasado para todos los 'Verbos Regulares'. Si termina en -d o -t, se le pone -ed como sílaba aparte; si termina en cualquier otra consonante, se añade también -ed pero sin hacer sílaba aparte; si termina en -e, se le pone sólo –d; una -y final que sigue a cualquier consonante se cambia en - ie más –d.

Futuro simple:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+Aux (will)+V ( base form )+C

S+Aux (will)+Neg+V ( base form )+C

I

You

We

They

Will travel

He

She

It

Will travel

I

You

We

They

Will not travel

He

She

It

Will not travel

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux (will)+S+V ( base form )+C+?

Will

I

You

We

They

travel?

Will

He

She

It

travel?

Nota:

Presente simple continúo:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ be (pres. Simpl.)+V (ing)+C

S+ be (pres. Simpl.)+Neg+V (ing)+C

I am walking

He

She

It

is walking

I am not walking

He

She

It

is not walking

You

We

They

are walking

You

We

They

are not walking

INTERROGACIÓN

Be (pres. Simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+?

Am I walking?

Is

He

She

It

walking?

Are

You

We

They

walking?

Nota:

Pasado simple continúo:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ be (pasd. Simpl.)+V (ing)+C

S+ be (pasd. Simpl.)+Neg+V (ing)+C

I was driving

He

She

It

was driving

I was not driving

He

She

It

was not driving

You

We

They

were driving

You

We

They

were not driving

INTERROGACIÓN

Be (pasd. Simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+?

Was I driving?

Was

He

She

It

driving?

Were

You

We

They

driving?

Nota:

Futuro simple continúo:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux(will)+ be(base form)+V (ing)+C

S+ Aux(will)+Neg+be(base form)+V (ing)+C

I will be lending

He

She

It

Will be lending

I will not be lending

He

She

It

will not be lending

You

We

They

will be lending

You

We

They

will not be lending

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux (will)+S+be (base form)+V (ing)+C+?

Will I be lending?

Will

He

She

It

be lending?

Will

You

We

They

Be lending?

Nota:

Presente perfecto:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(have/has)+V (P.p)+C

S+ Aux.(have/has)+Neg+V (P.p)+C

I have bought

He

She

It

has bought (he’s)

I have not bought

He

She

It

has not bought (hasn’t)

You

We

They

have bought

(you’ve)

You

We

They

have not bought (haven’t)

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux.(have/has)+S+V (P.p)+C+?

Have I bought?

Has

He

She

It

bought?

Have

You

We

They

bought?

Nota:

El presente perfecto, se forma con "to have" a modo de auxiliar y el verbo en participio pasado. En la tercera persona se emplea el "has".

Pasado perfecto:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(had)+V (P.p)+C

S+ Aux.(had)+Neg+V (P.p)+C

I had bought (I’d)

He

She

It

had bought (he’d)

I had not bought

He

She

It

had not bought (hadn’t)

You

We

They

had bought

(you‘d)

You

We

They

had not bought (hadn’t)

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux.(had)+S+V (P.p)+C+?

Had I bought?

Had

He

She

It

Bought?

Had

You

We

They

bought?

Nota:

Futuro perfecto:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(will)+(have)+V (P.p)+C

S+ Aux.(will)+Neg+(have)+V (P.p)+C

I will have bought

He

She

It

will have bought (he’ll have)

I will not have bought

He

She

It

will not have bought (won’t have)

You

We

They

will have bought

(you‘ll have)

You

We

They

will not have bought (won’t have)

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux.(will)+S+(have)+V (P.p)+C+?

Will I have bought?

Will

He

She

It

have bought?

Will

You

We

They

have bought?

Nota:

Presente perfecto continúo:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(have/has)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C

S+ Aux.(have/has)+Neg+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C

I have been selling

He

She

It

has been selling (he’s been)

I have not been selling

He

She

It

have not been selling (hasn’t been)

You

We

They

have been selling

(you‘ve been)

You

We

They

have not been selling (haven’t been)

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux.(have/has)+S+be(P.p)+V(ing)+ C+?

Have I been selling?

Has

He

She

It

been selling?

Have

You

We

They

been selling?

Nota:

Pasado perfecto continúo:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(had)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C

S+ Aux.(had)+Neg+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C

I had been selling

He

She

It

had been selling (he’d been)

I had not been selling

He

She

It

had not been selling (hadn’t been)

You

We

They

had been selling

(you‘d been)

You

We

They

had not been selling (hadn’t been)

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux.(had)+S+be(P.p)+V(ing)+ C+?

Had I been selling?

Had

He

She

It

been selling?

Had

You

We

They

been selling?

Nota:

Futuro perfecto continúo:

AFIRMATIVO

NEGATIVO

S+ Aux.(will)+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C

S+ Aux.(will)+Neg+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C

I will have been selling

He

She

It

will have been selling (he’ll have been)

I will not have been selling

He

She

It

will not have been selling

You

We

They

will have been selling

(you‘ll have been)

You

We

They

will not have been selling (won’t have been)

INTERROGACIÓN

Aux.(will)+S+(have)+be(P.p)+V(ing)+C+?

Will I have been selling?

Will

He

She

It

have been selling?

Will

You

We

They

have been selling?

Nota:

Pronombres personales

sujeto

complemento

Pronombre reflexivo

Pronombre reciproco

Singsingular

1

I

Me

Myself

-

2

You

You

Yourself

-

3

He

Him

Himself

-

She

Her

Herself

-

It

It

Itself

-

P

1

We

Us

Ourselves

Each other

2

You

You

Yourselves

Each other

3

They

Them

Themselves

Each other

Preposiciones básicas

B.P

Used

Example

at

  • Specific times
  • Definite place
  • Full address
  • Speed
  • Idea of definite time and place

Exception: at night: use in for the other parts of the day.

  • He has class at 8:30.
  • My brother is at school.
  • They live at 2388 Park Road.
  • He was driving at 90 miles per hour.
  • The exercise is at the end of the lesson.

in

  • Inside
  • Cities, boroughs
  • States, countries
  • Parts of countries
  • Continents
  • Parts of the day
  • Months, seasons, years
  • Time (length of time)
  • within
  • We are in the kitchen.
  • The school is in the UCV.
  • How long have you lived in Caracas?
  • I live in the West.
  • We saw many interesting sights in Europe.
  • We have class in the morning.
  • Graduation will be in July.
  • You’ll have your exam in seven days.
  • I’ll be back in ten minutes.

on

  • On the surface
  • Streets, avenues
  • Floors
  • Dates
  • Days of the week
  • On a farm, a planet, an island, campus
  • Punctuality
  • The book was on the table.
  • Their house is on First Street.
  • My apartment is on the sixth floor.
  • My birthday is on October 22nd.
  • There is no class on Saturday.
  • He works on campus.
  • He’s usually here on time.

Note: in time for something)

by

  • Means, by way of (pasando por; por vía de; como; por medio de; a modo de)
  • You learn by repeating.
  • You can get there by car.

of

  • Possessive of things
  • Parts of a whole
  • The leg of the chair was broken.
  • I bought a pound of carrots.

over

  • Exact position (vertical)
  • The light is over jack.
  • The cabinets are over the counter.

to

  • Destination
  • Leave for
  • Arrive at place
  • Arrive in a city
  • We are going to New York.
  • The plane to Houston left an hour ago.
  • He got to his office at eight.
  • They will arrive in New York tonight.

above

  • Degree higher than
  • Location higher than
  • The temperature is above 40.
  • There are cabinets above the sink.

below

  • To a lower degree
  • Is Caracas above or below sea level?

Tips para traducir

  1. Cuando nos encontramos ante la presencia de palabras en el idioma inglés que se asemejan a ciertas palabras en el idioma español y poseen el mismo significado, estas palabras son llamadas: verdaderas cognadas.
  2. Cuando nos encontramos con palabras en el inglés que se parecen a ciertas palabras en el español, pero que su significado es diferente, estas palabras son llamadas: falsas cognadas.
  3. Cuando nos encontramos con varias palabras seguidas unas de otras que pueden ser sustantivos, adjetivos o adverbios, nos detendremos a leer en el primer verbo, preposición, conectivo o signo de puntuación y procederemos a leer de derecha a izquierda sin omitir ninguna palabra. Solo jugaremos con los adjetivos o adverbios en el idioma español. (Marbella Delgado, 2003)

Bibliografía

  • ENCICLOPEDIA AUTODIDACTA OCEANO: Lengua y humanidades, Volumen 1, 1989.
  • BIBLIOTECA EL NACIONAL: diccionario de inglés/español, TOMO 7, 2001.
  • INGLÉS FÁCIL: Gramática y diccionario de modismos.
  • www.mansioningles.com.gramatica.htm
  • www.usingenglish.com
  • Material instructivo del C.V.A.

 

 

ISRAEL LOPEZ MONTAÑO

Nota: Próximamente se publicara otro manual actualizado.


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