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Desarrollo Organizacional, Cambio Organizacional, Eficiencia Organizacional e Inteligencia Organizacional

Partes: 1, 2

Bibliografía: "Toma de Decisiones y Procesos Cognitivos en las Empresas y Organizaciones" - Editado por The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica – 2005. Autor: Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP


Las organizaciones han sido concebidas bajo el modelo de administración científica y más adelante privilegiando los aspectos humanos fuertemente vinculados con los afectos. Posiblemente una de las revoluciones más grandes en cuanto a concebir a una organización por separado de éstos dos modelos, haya sido el trabajo monumental desarrollado por James March & Herbert Simon titulado "Organizations" (Wiley & Sons – 1958).

Estos dos autores realizaron una importante contribución en aquella época que llegó incluso a permitir reinterpretar más correctamente muchas de las conclusiones a que habían arribado anteriormente muchos investigadores y académicos. Y es de destacar que incluso hoy día, casi cincuenta años más tarde, muchos directores y líderes empresariales como así también consultores de empresas, no llegan a aplicar hipótesis básicas sobre comportamiento humano que han sido comprobadas en las ciencias del comportamiento.

Tan sólo la distinción de James March & Herbert Simon ("Organizations"; ya citado – 1958) entre la decisión de participar y la decisión de producir, en caso de ser aplicadas correctamente por los altos directivos y líderes organizacionales como así también por los consultores y asesores de empresas, puede llegar a decidir la marcha exitosa y supervivencia de una organización o su eventual fracaso.

Posiblemente no exista mejor introducción a este tema que – paradójicamente – la Conclusión que se incluye en el tratado mencionado. De allí que con orgullo, lo incluimos a continuación.

"Conclusion. In this chapter and the previous one we have examined the cognitive aspects of human behavior in organizations. The study of organizations was generally dominated in the first quarter of this century (XXth) by the point of view of scientific management; in the second quarter by the interests and approaches usually labeled "human relations". In the former case, the human actors in organization were viewed primarily as "instruments" that could be described in terms of a few physiological and simple psychological properties. In the latter case, the human actors were endowed with feelings and motives, but relatively little attention was paid by their properties as adaptive, reasoning beings. Our analysis of cognition fits into the broader outline of organization theory not as a substitute for, but as a supplement to, these earlier approaches."

"Because there has been less concern with cognitive than with other phenomena in organizations, the treatment of the theory in the last two chapters has necessarily been more fragmentary and less systematic that the analysis in the first five chapters. In particular, empirical evidence of a reliable and persuasive kind is almost nonexistent – a complaint we have made throughout this volume, but which applies with special force to the topic of cognition. Our labors in writing these chapters will be more than repaid if they encourage others to join in the task of replacing fancy with fact in understanding the human mind and human behavior in an organizational setting".

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