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Desarrollo Organizacional e Inteligencia Organizacional. Bibliografía: "Diversidad en las Organizaciones"




Las ciencias del comportamiento en las organizaciones han hecho contribuciones significativas al alertar sobre aspectos "no-físicos" que tienen una fuerte incidencia en el comportamiento organizacional y en los resultados empresariales. Inicialmente los aportes privilegiaron al "individuo" como unidad de análisis principal y con el transcurso del tiempo se hicieron contribuciones importantes a dos unidades de análisis "más grandes": en primer término los grupos y luego la organización en su conjunto.

Los aprendizajes respecto del comportamiento grupal mostraron que muchas veces la efectividad y eficiencia organizacional guarda mucha relación con la calidad y cantidad de las relaciones interpersonales, y también las inter-grupales. También se han estudiado otras variables como por ejemplo el grado de cohesión y se ha prestado una considerable atención a la variable conflicto que, en una primera instancia, era vista como fuente de potenciales disfunciones para la empresa.

Alrededor de la segunda mitad del siglo pasado muchos autores comenzaron a prestar atención a lo que sucedía en el contexto organizacional (Amitai Etzioni: "Modern Organizations"; Prentice Hall – 1964); Charles Perrow: Organizational analysis: a sociological view"; Brooks / Cole – 1970; D. Katz & R. Kahn: "The social psychology of organizations"; New York: Wiley – 1978; Derek Pugh & D. J. Hickson: "Organizational structure in its context: The Aston programme"; Coger Publishing – 1976); Eric Trist et. al.: "Organizational choice"; Tavistock – 1963; Pert Hofstede: "Cultures and organizations: software of the mind"; McGraw-Hill – 1991; James D. Thompson; "Organizations in Action"; McGraw Hill – 1967; Paul Lawrence & Jay Lorsch: "Organizations and Environment"; Harvard – 1967).

Y cada vez parece ser mayor la incidencia de lo que "sucede fuera de la empresa" y las consecuencias que ello tiene sobre la propia organización. Hoy en día las corporaciones de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica ganan más dinero de sus operaciones fuera de Estados Unidos que lo que generan dentro de su propio país.

Anteriormente el empresario y el alto directivo de una corporación partía del punto de vista de desarrollar y fabricar un producto "distinto" que le pudiera dar suficientes ventajas para sostener su empresa en el tiempo. Estas personalidades tenían en sus cabezas (por supuesto que metafóricamente, ya que lo tenían en sus mentes) que "a partir de Su producto" se generaba la empresa.

Hoy en día, los directivos más altos del mundo corporativo como así también los empresarios y propietarios que sobreviven y crecen saben muy bien que lo importante es lo que el Cliente tiene en su mente. La empresa Coca-Cola ha popularizado el concepto que en lugar de pensar en la "porción del mercado" hay que comenzar a pensar respecto de "la porción de la mente de los Clientes".

Y los Clientes – bajo la concepción tradicional es estructura organizacional – aparecen como actores fuera del organigrama. Estos personajes son cada día más variados, requieren productos más variados, y que estos sean de corta duración. Es decir, que en poco tiempo estos productos y servicios nuevos se conviertan en "terminales". La práctica de CRM (Customer Relationship Management) ha destacado la importancia de la relación one-to-one con foco en el Cliente (y lo que éste tiene en su cabeza).

Así como los Clientes han ganado en diversidad, también lo han sido las personas que aparecen en los organigramas formales de las empresas. La fuerza laboral es cada vez más variada en cuanto a género, cultura, nacionalidad, idioma, y costumbres entre otros. Las organizaciones y sus líderes se encuentran entonces con un fenómeno nuevo con el cual deben lidiar, para el cual usualmente no han estado preparados.

Para ser más precisos, dentro de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, las personas que ingresan a las organizaciones han de ser mayoritariamente no-blancos a partir del año 2000 como lo pronostican y señalan Goldstein & William (ver Bibliografía - 1990) y Offerman & Gowing (ver Bibliografía – 1990).

La economía en muchos países se ha movido de los sectores primario y secundario al sector terciario lo que requiere mayores habilidades de tipo inter-personal donde la calidad en cuanto al delivery del producto es de suma importancia. Y hemos de encontrar una fuerza laboral cada vez más diversa; se estima que para mediados de este siglo los hispanos, negros y asiáticos han de representar casi la mitad de la población de los Estados Unidos.

De modo que los Clientes y también el propio personal como los proveedores, son más diversos en cuanto a género, cultura, nacionalidad, idioma, y costumbres entre otros. Y por lo general los líderes y gerentes no han estado acostumbrados a lidiar con tanta diversidad. Es nuestra sugerencia que es bueno prepararse y para ello es que hemos desarrollado esta Bibliografía sobre temas relacionados con Diversidad.

En "Workplace Diversity" los autores Harry Triandis, Lois L. Kurowski & Michele J. Gelfand ("Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology"; Consulting Psychologists – 1994) señalan que su definición de diversidad refleja cualquier atributo que los humanos están dispuestos a usar para decirse a sí mismos: "Esa persona es diferente de mí". Brewer & Campbell (ver Bibliografía - 1976) señalan que las personas tendemos a hacer uso de nuestra propia cultura para juzgar y evaluar otras culturas. Y tendemos naturalmente los humanos a ver positivamente a aquellos cuya cultura es similar a la nuestra, lo que implica que "devaluamos" a aquellos que se diferencian de nosotros. No es necesario señalar las múltiples consecuencias negativas que se han de originar en una empresa / organización como resultado de cómo los participantes organizacionales ven "devaluados" al resto; ya el lector ha podido hacer su propia apreciación.

Este fenómeno nuevo que se llama diversidad en la literatura de las ciencias del comportamiento y esperamos que esta Bibliografía le resulte de utilidad a los lectores, como así también a los directivos corporativos y empresarios en las distintas culturas latinoamericanas, para de esa manera poder crear, desarrollar y promover organizaciones que alcancen un alto nivel de eficiencia competitiva.

Al parecer los humanos somos etnocéntricos, y muchas otras especies también lo son (no es común ver a un grupo de cebras integrado con gacelas, por ejemplo). Y además de ser etnocéntricos, y esto es especialmente importante para aquellos interesados en la marcha de sus empresas y organizaciones, la filosofía de dirección y gerencial prevaleciente ha enfatizado este etnocentrismo. Los autores Loden & Rosener (ver Bibliografía - 1991) incluyen los siguientes aspectos dentro de la filosofía de dirección prevaleciente, lo que atenta contra la concepción de diversidad como una fuente de ventajas como así también de desventajas: el hecho de que existan "los otros" es por sí mismo una deficiencia; la diversidad es una fuente de real amenaza para el funcionamiento efectivo; los participantes organizacionales que se caracterizan por su "diversidad" deben tratar de asemejarse al grupo que domina dentro de la empresa. Y sugieren entonces – que en base a esta filosofía de dirección – es necesario cambiar a las personas y no a la cultura organizacional.

Por nuestra parte esperamos con esta primer Bibliografía sobre "Diversidad" permita a los directivos corporativos y propietarios de empresas pensar sobre las oportunidades que le presenta tener un mayor conocimiento sobre los distintos aspectos que se vinculan con ella. Lo que sí estamos seguros es que el mundo organizacional y de las empresas se va a volver cada vez más complejo por la cada vez mayor influencia de lo que está fuera de la organización, como así también por la presión de las cambiantes y variadas necesidades individuales. Si a ello le agregamos una fuerza laboral interna a la empresa cada vez más distinta y heterogénea, ello ha de requerir competencias y habilidades especiales a la dirección y gerencia. Muchos de los aportes y contribuciones que aquí se incluyen han de ser de gran ayuda al respecto.

Sus sugerencias y recomendaciones de mejoras en relación con esta Bibliografía, son sumamente bienvenidas. Muchas gracias por compartir.

Eric Gaynor Butterfield.

Bibliografía : Diversidad

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Esperamos que esta primera versión Bibliográfica en relación con el tema de Diversidad en las Organizaciones mucho de lo aprendido al respecto por estos expertos pueda ser aplicado ventajosamente por altos directivos corporativos y también por empresarios en los distintos países de Latinoamérica.

India y China vienen trabajando durante los últimos 15 a 20 años con suma intensidad en la aplicación de las Ciencias del Comportamiento dentro del mundo de las empresas y organizaciones, y muchos de sus resultados ya están a la vista. El empresario puede ser exitoso "sin saber", pero solo ocasionalmente. Y aún así esto no es muy bueno; cuando se cae tampoco sabe porque su empresa ha caído.

Gracias por compartir.

 

Eric Gaynor Butterfield – RODP

The O. D. Institute International, Latin America

Board member of The O. D. Institute - Worldwide

Editado por The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica – 2005.


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