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Desarrollo Organizacional e Inteligencia Organizacional. Bibliografía: "Trabajo en Grupos"




En algunos de nuestros Talleres, Cursos y Seminarios es frecuente que surjan preguntas de participantes que ocupan posiciones directivas y ejecutivas en corporaciones como asimismo de propietarios – empresarios, que se relacionan con tratar de "descubrir" cuales son los aspectos claves que deben tenerse en cuenta para maximizar la eficiencia organizacional.

Para ello tratamos de introducirlos en los esquemas que tradicionalmente usan los investigadores y académicos dentro de las Ciencias del Comportamiento en las Organizaciones, que también intentan encontrar descubrimientos donde:

a. se validan las hipótesis de otros investigadores, practitioners y académicos "anteriores",

b. se trata de encontrar que validez puede llegar a tener una hipótesis "nueva" que ellos se han dedicado a investigar.

Bajo ambas propuestas es necesario que la persona que tiene este tipo de curiosidad pueda definir claramente que es lo más relevante en lo cual está interesado. Un directivo corporativo puede estar interesado en aumentar la utilidad de la empresa y que ésta se vea reflejada en dividendos para los accionistas, y puede ser que otro directivo – incluso dentro del mismo sector industrial – privilegie el desarrollo de una vigorosa cultura empresarial / organizacional.

Estas dos variables distintas que le interesan a éstos directivos representan lo que denominamos "variables dependientes". Es importante tener en cuenta que en el transcurso de la vida de una empresa, posiblemente los directivos tengan que privilegiar a estas dos variables en dos momentos distintos; incluso pueden aparecer otras variables dependientes como por ejemplo "la porción del mercado" que tiene la empresa respecto de uno o varios de sus productos.

Ahora bien, el hecho de definir claramente la variable dependiente es parte del trabajo y el "descubrimiento" importante para estos directivos y empresarios – propietarios tiene que ver con que es lo que causa o provoca cambios en esa variable dependiente que se ha elegido. ¿Que es lo que queremos decir con esto?

Debemos tener en cuenta ahora otras nuevas variables las cuales asumimos impactan de alguna manera en nuestra variable dependiente elegida. Estas variables que – supuestamente tienen una relación causal con la variable dependiente – reciben el nombre de "variables independientes".

Por ejemplo, en el caso de la elección de la variable dependiente a que hemos hecho mención más arriba (aumentar la utilidad de la empresas y el pago de dividendos a los accionistas), posiblemente el foco de los directivos sea puesto en aumentar los ingresos por ventas o reducir los gastos, o quizás tener en cuenta a ambos como principales variables "independientes".

Por otro lado, en el caso de haber elegido como variable dependiente llegar a desarrollar "una vigorosa cultura empresarial / organizacional, posiblemente los esfuerzos de la dirección y/o del propietario deban orientarse hacia otros aspectos, como por ejemplo: motivación del personal, capacitación y entrenamiento, análisis del sistema de recompensas, desarrollo del trabajo en equipo, mayor participación del personal en la toma de decisiones.

Estos otros aspectos que hemos mencionado se convierten de ésta manera en las variables independientes para el caso de que nos interese desarrollar una vigorosa cultura.

Para aquellos interesados en profundizar más sobre este tema podemos sugerirles acudir a nuestras "Prácticas" donde a través de ejercitaciones de distinto tipo, se desarrollan estas nuevas habilidades. Y luego al poseerlas, han de estar en mejores condiciones de interpretar los marcos teóricos y conceptuales de otros notables expertos.

A través de nuestras intervenciones de Cambio Organizacional hemos aprendido que los consultores muchas veces subestimamos las capacidades de nuestros Clientes, en especial cuando se trata de Empresarios que son Propietarios de sus negocios. Uno de mis hallazgos muestra evidencia que una intervención puede iniciarse como resultado de que es el Consultor el que comparte con el Propietario "lo que harían distintos expertos notables" bajo la situación que vive la empresa. Y los resultados nos han mostrado que estos mismos propietarios han sido muy efectivos en facilitar el proceso de introducir Cambio Organizacional como resultado de esta particular forma de intervención organizacional (Congreso de Desarrollo Organizacional; Argentina – 1999. Taller: ¿Pueden los Consultores compartir con los Clientes lo que ellos como Consultores tienen en sus cabezas?).

Hasta aquí pareciera que el trabajo de un directivo corporativo o de un empresario – propietario no debería ser tan difícil. Después de cierto tiempo cada uno de ellos en base a su experiencia dentro de sus respectivas empresas han de haber aprendido lo suficiente como para saber cuales son las variables más independientes y en qué medida debieran dosificar dosis para que cada una de ellas tenga una mayor incidencia (positiva) sobre la variable dependiente en que están interesados.

Pero surge algo que aquellos que están familiarizados con las Ciencias del Comportamiento en las Organizaciones reconocen como válido, pero que no necesariamente lo reconoce el resto de las personas. No existe un solo millonario en el planeta, ni tampoco una sola persona exitosa, que no haya sabido interactuar con otros. Incluso los artistas han tenido que "congeniar" con sus sponsors de turno, y es posible que algún artista plástico y algunos pocos más en el mundo hayan conseguido el éxito. Pero resulta que los muy pocos que lo han alcanzado "sin otros" en el caso de artistas plásticos, su fama exitosa ha requerido de su muerte; son "marchands" (muchos de ellos) los que usufructúan lo que el artista ha producido.

Lo que estamos sugiriendo es que existe una nueva variable pero que va más allá de la variable dependiente que eligiéramos como más importante, y también va más allá de las distintas variables independientes que hemos "descubierto".

Se trata de una variable "interviniente" que actúa como moderadora de la relación entre las variables independientes descubiertas y nuestra variable dependiente en la cual estamos poniendo foco. Al actuar la variable interviniente como moderadora nos encontramos con una situación particular que ya no resulta tan fácil de manejar dentro del mundo de las empresas. ¿Y qué es realmente una variable interviniente que influye moderando la relación entre la variable independiente y la variable dependiente? Ustedes se preguntarán: ¿Por qué no lo explica de una manera más simple?

Pues bien, tengamos en cuenta la siguiente situación. En algunas pocas empresas y también en muchos negocios nos encontramos con que se ha dispuesto tener música durante el horario de trabajo o el horario de atención a Clientes.

¿Cuál es la hipótesis general respecto de ésta decisión que ha tomado el directivo máximo? El directivo ha asumido que, en el caso de una empresa, su personal ha de trabajar más eficazmente si creamos un ambiente con música mientras que en el caso de un negocio el supuesto es que además del personal los Clientes también se sienten mejor en el negocio cuando escuchan música. Algo parecido sucede cuando los directivos corporativo o propietario de un negocio deciden instalar equipos de aire acondicionado; el supuesto básico es que ha de mejorar el clima de la empresa, la satisfacción de las personas y la eficiencia.

Pues bien, esto no es siempre así. La intensidad de la música – es decir el volumen – puede influir sobre la supuesta relación unívoca entre la variable independiente y la variable dependiente. Resulta obvio que si la música es puesta a todo volumen las personas no han de ser muy efectivas en su trabajo, y esto también puede ser cierto si la música se encuentra a niveles muy bajos. Existe lo que llamamos un término "medio" donde SÍ encontramos que, a ciencia cierta, existe una relación unívoca entre la variable independiente (la música) y la dependiente.

Lo mismo sucede con el aire acondicionado pues instancias de intensidad muy bajas o muy altas pueden producir efectos contrarios de lo que nosotros esperamos.

En ambos casos, la intensidad de la música y la intensidad de la temperatura del equipo de aire acondicionado, ambos actúan como variables intervinientes que se caracterizan por moderar la relación entre la variable independiente y la dependiente.

Algo similar ocurre con las distintas unidades de análisis que tienen que ver con la marcha de las organizaciones. Algunas cosas que hemos aprendido respecto del comportamiento individual no resulta ser suficiente para manejar eficientemente las empresas y organizaciones. Ha nacido todo un cuerpo de conocimiento que tiene que ver con temas relacionados con lo que llamamos la segunda unidad de análisis: el grupo.

El individuo es la primera unidad de análisis y la organización es la tercera, pero el nexo entre ambas se produce a través de la segunda unidad de análisis que es el grupo. La actividad grupal altera entonces las relaciones que nosotros podemos dar como válidas cuando en nuestras cabezas (metafóricamente hablando puesto que realmente es en nuestras mentes) tenemos preferentemente a las personas y a la empresa.

La literatura en materia de grupos dentro de las organizaciones cubre (como mínimo) los siguientes aspectos:

- Que es realmente un Grupo

- Cómo se diferencia de un Equipo

- Lo que sucede diferencialmente como resultado de grupos de a dos, de a tres, en grupos pequeños y en grupos grandes

- Como se crean los grupos

- Proceso de formación de grupos

- Crecimiento de los grupos

- Las normativas formales en grupos

- La distribución de recursos en grupos

- Aspectos funcionales – y disfuncionales - de los grupos en crecimiento a tener en cuenta

- Funciones, roles y posiciones de los ocupantes

- El papel del status dentro de los grupos

- El grupo en movimiento (dinámica grupal)

- Los procesos de facilitación de ideas en grupos

- Los procesos de implementación de ideas en grupos

- La cohesión: su influencia en los grupos.

- Aspectos funcionales y disfuncionales de la cohesión

- Incorporando el riesgo en el grupo de trabajo

- Como operan las fuerzas competitivas y cooperativas

- El momento de terminación del grupo.

En un trabajo de campo realizado hace unos 10 años donde se han expuesto los puntos recientemente mencionados con los expertos en la materia, nos hemos encontrado que tanto los directivos y ejecutivos corporativos como así también los propietarios de empresas, desconocían en su inmensa mayoría a ambos: los conocimientos y también a los autores de esos conocimientos.

Hemos editado un trabajo sobre el comportamiento de grupos en organizaciones y empresas para justamente poner a disposición de los ejecutivos corporativos el conocimiento sobre esta importante temática, el que puede ser consultado por usted, estimado lector, en: www.monografias.com

Y ahora, con el propósito de expandir aún más los conocimientos y ponerlos a disposición de ejecutivos y empresarios, estamos agregando al material en Grupos, esta primer Bibliografía en español sobre estos contenidos que son de vital importancia para poder crear empresas y organizaciones efectivas y eficientes.

Las personas pueden ser exitosas practicando y a través del extraordinario método de aprendizaje que es conocido como prueba y error se han hecho muchos avances. Nosotros intentamos ir incluso un paso más allá y agregar conocimientos de las distintas disciplinas para el mejor logro práctico. Aunque suene paradójico, la conquista espacial ha sido posible por el hecho de que existen en los últimos 70 años ciertos conocimientos y concepciones que permiten llevar a la práctica el envío de una nave al espacio, y que ésta pueda regresar con sus tripulantes. Solamente con la práctica, hubiéramos tenido dificultades en alcanzar los logros actuales en materia espacial.

Los empresarios y directivos corporativos cuenten ahora con un cuerpo muy consistente de conceptos que le permiten contar con un marco de referencia que le proporciona mayor seguridad en el éxito de sus emprendimientos. No hacer uso de ellos, lleva a los empresarios a lo que se conoce como "jugar en el Casino" donde usualmente es el groupier – y no el que juega – quién se lleva las ganancias.

Aceptamos con mucho gusto nuevas sugerencias sobre materiales en materia de esta temática de "Grupos en organizaciones / empresas". Desde ya les damos la bienvenida y nuestro agradecimiento.

Muchas gracias por compartir.

Bibliografía: "Grupos" en las Organizaciones

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Agradeceremos a los lectores toda contribución y aporte que puedan realizar a esta primer Bibliografía en español, en materia del comportamiento de "Grupos en las Organizaciones".

Desde ya les quedamos agradecidos.

Muchas gracias por compartir.

 

Eric Gaynor Butterfield

Presidente

The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica

Board member of The Organization Development Institute – Worldwide

Editado por The Organization Development Institute International, Latinamerica – 2005.


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