En la actualidad es de vital importancia que todos los graduados universitarios alcancen un nivel intermedio en la asignatura de Inglés, lo que incluye el dominio de técnicas de traducción y traducción de textos acordes a su especialidad. Es por ello, que esta monografía incluye textos de traducción para la carrera de Derecho así como un glosario de los términos claves y palabras de difícil comprensión para dicha carrera. Este trabajo ha sido utilizado satisfactoriamente en la Universidad de Granma proporcionándole una guía tanto para profesores como para estudiantes, con el objetivo de lograr un buen desenvolvimiento e impartición de la asignatura Inglés con Fines Profesionales al no contar con este tipo de bibliografía en cursos anteriores.
One of the many changes that has taken place in china over the last few years is a change in television news programmes. Since the communist party came to power in 1949, all newspapers, television, and radio programs have existed to promote the party’s point of view. Until a few years ago, reporters were not allowed to publish stories about social injustice or the mistakes of officials. But now this has changed. Today china has 780 regional TV stations, all of which have become obsessed with the capitalist idea of attracting as many viewers as possible. Beijing TV, for example, last week had an audience of over 7 million when Xu Tao, their 26 year old crime reporter, managed to interview a notorious rapist. Xu Tao’s ability to get exciting news stories always has impressed her station manager. "Last year she won the title of News Reporter of the Year", he says proudly. But the work can be dangerous. Last month Xu made public the actions of a group of unqualified "doctors". She went to their "clinic" as a patient, using a mini-camera to photograph what was happening there. Since then she has received a number of death threats. "I have been threatened many times", she says fearlessly, "but bad must not be allowed to overcome good".
It’s a technical expression which embraces a variety of acts of disobedience to the court in opposition to its authority or dignity and involving the elements of wilfulness. Such acts are punishable by the court. Examples of conduct generally held to constitute contempt are disorderly or insolent behaviour committed during the siting of the court, in its presence, and tending to interrupt its proceedings; unlawful refusal to be sworn as a witness; disobedience to the court’s mandates, orders and decrees.
Contempt of Court is classified as criminal and civil contempt, depending upon whether the offence is treated as being primarily against public justice, the penalty for which is punitive or as being an invasion of private rights. When a contempt is treated as a civil one, a fine by way on indemnity to the injured party is often imposed with the alternative of commitment if the fine is not paid. Generally one adjudged guilty of civil contempt for not doing a required act will be released from commitment upon performing the act required.
The public offence of bribery may be defined as the offering of payment or giving of payment in some shape or form that it may be a motive in the performance of functions for which the proper motive ought to be a conscientious sense of duty. When this is superseded by the sordid impulses created by the bribe, a person is said to be corrupted, and thus corruption is term sometimes held equivalent to bribery.
In English law, bribery of a privy counsellor or a juror is punishable as a misdemeanour, as is the taking of a bribe by any judicial or ministerial officer. The buying and selling of public offices is also regarded at common law as a form of bribery. The giving or receiving, promising, offering, soliciting or agreeing to receive any gift, fee, loan or advantage by any person as an inducement for any act or forbearance by a member officer or servant of a public body in regard to the affairs of that body is made a misdemeanour in England and Ireland and crime offence in Scotland. Prosecution requires the consent of the attorney or solicitor general in England or Ireland and of the lord advocate in Scotland. Conviction renders liable to punishment with or without hard labour for a term not exceeding two years, and to a fine not exceeding 500 (steerling pounds), in addition to or in lieu of imprisonment. On a second conviction he may be judged forever incapable of holding public office.
In the United States, the offence of bribery is very severely dealt with. In many states, bribery or the attempt to bribe is made a felony, and is punishable with varying terms of imprisonment, in some jurisdiction it may be with a period not exceeding ten years.
Disposing of the garbage we produce every day is a major problem in cities around the world. In the United States, over 160 million tons of garbage are produced every year. Ten percent is burned, and the rest is put in landfills. But finding land for new landfills is becoming more difficult.
A city that has solved this problem in an unusual way is Machida in Tokyo, Japan. They have developed a totally new approach to garbage disposal. The key to the operation is public cooperation. Families must divide their garbage into six categories:
(1)- Garbage that can be easily burned (that is, combustible garbage), such as kitchen and garden trash.
(2)- Non-combustible garbage, such as small electronical appliances, plastic tools, and plastic toys.
(3)- Products that are poisonous or that cause pollution, such as batteries and fluorescent lights.
(4)- Bottles and glass containers that can be recycled.
(5)- Metal containers that can be recycled.
(6)- Large items, such as furniture and bicycles.
The items in categories (1) to (5) are collected on different days. (Large items are only collected upon request) then the garbage is taken to a center that looks like a clean new office building or hospital. In side the center, special equipment is used to sort and process the garbage. Almost everything can be reused : garden or kitchen trash becomes fertilizer; combustible garbage is burned to produce electricity; metal containers and bottles are recycled; and old furniture, clothing, and other useful items are cleaned, repaired, and resold cheaply or given away, the work provides employment for handicapped persons and gives them a chance to learn new skills.
Nowadays, officials from cities around the world visit Machida to see whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own garbage disposal problems.
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