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Partes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11


In addition to the verb to be, certain other verbs can be followed by predicate adjectives. Such verbs are sometimes referred to as linking verbs, since they can link nouns or pronouns to modifying adjectives. For instance, the following verbs can be used as linking verbs.

Linking Verb

Linking Verb used with Predicate Adjective

  to become

  The wind became stronger.

  to feel

  The blanket feels soft, warm and comfortable.

  to grow

  The weather is growing cold.

  to look

  The sky looked grey and overcast.

  to seem

  His reasoning seems logical.

  to smell

  The soup smelled good.

  to sound

  The story sounds interesting.

  to taste

  The carrots tasted sweet.

  to turn

  The leaves turned scarlet.

In the above examples, the linking verbs link noun subjects with predicate adjectives

When a verb is used as a linking verb, it is intransitive, since it does not take an object. It should be noted that many of the verbs listed above can also be used transitively.

  • e.g. The child felt the blankets.

  • We smelled the soup.

In these examples, the verbs to feel and to smell are used transitively, taking the objects blankets and soup respectively.

4. INTERPOLATED ADJECTIVES

As well as being used as attributive or predicate adjectives, general descriptive adjectives and adjectives indicating color can also be placed elsewhere in a sentence. When used in this way, adjectives can be said to be interpolated into a sentence. In the following sentences, the interpolated adjectives are underlined.

  • e.g. The child, happy and excited, ran along the beach.

  • Startled, the small yellow bird stopped singing.

  • Tense, expectant and alert, we waited to see what would happen.

Since the use of interpolated adjectives is somewhat uncommon, the use of interpolation can serve to emphasize the adjectives. Interpolated adjectives are most often placed immediately after a noun, as shown in the first example; or before a noun or pronoun at the beginning of a sentence, as shown in the second and third examples.As illustrated above, a noun can be modified simultaneously by both interpolated and attributive adjectives. For instance, in the second example, the noun bird is modified by both the interpolated adjective startled and the attributive adjectives the small yellow.Care must be taken in the positioning of interpolated adjectives, since the reader or listener will usually assume that the adjectives modify the nearest noun or pronoun.As can be seen from the examples, the punctuation of interpolated adjectives is similar to that of predicate adjectives. When more than one adjective is used, the last two adjectives are separated from one another by the word and, and previous adjectives are separated from one another by commas.However, unlike predicate adjectives, interpolated adjectives must also be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. For instance, in the first example above, the interpolated adjectives happy and excited are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma before the word happy, and a comma following the word excited. Likewise, in the second example, the interpolated adjective startled is separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma; and in the third example, the interpolated adjectives tense, expectant and alert are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma following the word alert.

Interpolated adjectives are used more often in written English than in spoken English.5. ADJECTIVAL PHRASES AND CLAUSES

Nouns and pronouns can be modified not only by adjectives, but also by adjectival phrases and clauses. In the following examples, the adjectival phrases and clauses are underlined.

  • e.g. The table near the door is made of oak.

  • The one on the desk is mine.

  • The chair, which was placed in front of the window, was an heirloom.

  • Those who decide to come will not be disappointed.

In the first example, the noun table is modified by the adjectival phrase near the door. In the second example, the pronoun one is modified by the adjectival phrase on the desk. In the third example, the noun chair is modified by the adjectival clause which was placed in front of the window. In the fourth example, the pronoun those is modified by the adjectival clause who decide to come. It should be noted that phrases do not contain verbs, whereas clauses do contain verbs. Phrases and clauses will be discussed further in the chapters dealing with prepositions and conjunctions. As illustrated in the preceding examples, an adjectival phrase or clause usually immediately follows the noun or pronoun being modified.

6. PARTICIPLES USED AS ADJECTIVES

As has already been mentioned, present and past participles of verbs can be used as adjectives.

A. PRESENT PARTICIPLES

Present participles used as adjectives refer to actions being performed by the things being described. In the following examples the present participles used as adjectives are underlined.

  • e.g. the falling star

  • the barking dog

The first example indicates that the star is performing the action of falling. The second example indicates that the dog is performing the action of barking.

B. PAST PARTICIPLES

Past participles used as adjectives refer to actions which have been performed on the things being described. In the following examples, the past participles used as adjectives are underlined.

  • e.g. the scattered leaves

  • the broken drum

The first example indicates that something has scattered the leaves. The second example indicates that something has broken the drum.

C. DANGLING PARTICIPLES

As well as being used as attributive and predicate adjectives, past and present participles can also be used at the beginning of adjectival phrases interpolated into a sentence. In the following sentences, the interpolated adjectival phrases are underlined. As illustrated by the examples, an interpolated phrase must be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.

  • e.g. Feeling hungry, the child ate an apple

  • . Disconcerted by the news, we headed for the nearest farmhouse.

In the first example, the present participle feeling begins the adjectival phrase feeling hungry, which modifies the noun child. In the second example, the past participle disconcerted begins the adjectival phrase disconcerted by the news, which modifies the pronoun we.

Since the listener or reader tends to assume that an interpolated adjectival phrase is meant to modify the nearest noun or pronoun, care must be taken to make sure that such a phrase is positioned close to the noun or pronoun to be modified. A participle that begins an interpolated phrase that is not sufficiently close to the noun or pronoun to be modified is usually referred to as a dangling participle. Dangling participles can result in ambiguity, or in sentences which do not make sense.

In the following sentences, the phrases beginning with dangling participles are underlined.

  • e.g. The photographer focused the camera, holding his breath

  • .Running across the road, his hat blew off.

In the first example, the noun to be modified is photographer. However, the phrase holding his breath is separated from the noun to be modified by the noun camera. Thus, the phrase holding his breath seems to modify the noun camera. In the second example, the noun or pronoun to be modified is missing from the sentence, and the phrase running across the road seems to modify the noun hat.

These example illustrate two basic types of dangling participle. In one type, the participle begins an adjectival phrase which is separated from the noun or pronoun to be modified by another noun or pronoun. In the other type, the participle begins an adjectival phrase that is meant to modify a noun or pronoun which in fact is not present in the sentence.

When an adjectival phrase is separated from the noun or pronoun to be modified by another noun or pronoun, the sentence can be corrected by positioning the adjectival phrase next to the noun or pronoun to be modified. This can often be accomplished by moving the phrase from one end of the sentence to the other.

For instance, in the sentences below, the nouns to be modified and the phrases containing dangling participles are underlined.

  • e.g. The photographer focused the camera, holding his breath.

  • Working as quickly as possible, our car was repaired by a mechanic.

  • Lost for over thirty years, she was overjoyed to find the diaries.

In these examples, holding his breath seems to modify the noun camera, working as quickly as possible seems to modify the noun car, and lost for over thirty years seems to modify the pronoun she.

These sentences can be corrected as follows.

  • e.g. Holding his breath, the photographer focused the camera.

  • Our car was repaired by a mechanic, working as quickly as possible.

  • She was overjoyed to find the diaries, lost for over thirty years.

In the corrected sentences, the adjectival phrases are correctly positioned near the nouns to be modified.

When an adjectival phrase is meant to modify a noun or pronoun which in fact is not present in the sentence, the sentence can be corrected by rewriting either the adjectival phrase or the rest of the sentence, so that the missing noun or pronoun is supplied. For instance, in the sentences below, the phrases containing dangling participles are underlined.

  • e.g. Running across the road, his hat blew off

  • . Sitting lost in thought, the book slipped from her hand.

  • Determined not to be late, our watches were set ten minutes fast.

These sentences can be corrected as follows. In the corrected sentences, the noun or pronoun which was missing from the original sentence is underlined. Two corrected versions are given for each of the preceding sentences.

  • e.g. As he ran across the road, his hat blew off.

  • Running across the road, he lost his hat.

  • As she sat lost in thought, the book slipped from her hand

  • .Sitting lost in thought, she let the book slip from her hand.

  • Because we were determined not to be late, our watches were set ten minutes fast.

  • Determined not to be late, we set our watches ten minutes fast.

In the first corrected version of each of the preceding sentences, the adjectival phrase has been changed to an adjectival clause containing the pronoun which was missing from the original sentence. Thus, the interpolated phrase running across the road has been changed to the subordinate clause as he ran across the road, the interpolated phrase sitting lost in thought has been changed to the subordinate clause as she sat lost in thought, and the interpolated phrase determined not to be late has been changed to the subordinate clause because we were determined not to be late.

In the second corrected version of each of the sentences, the main clause of the sentence has been rewritten so that the pronoun which was missing from the original sentence is positioned next to the adjectival phrase which is meant to modify the pronoun. Thus, whereas in the incorrect sentences, the underlined adjectival phrases seem to modify the adjacent nouns hat, book and watches; in the corrected sentences, the adjectival phrases correctly modify the pronouns he, she and we.

D. PAST PARTICIPLES WHICH FOLLOW THE VERB TO BE

In English, the verb to be followed by a past participle used as a predicate adjective has the same form as a verb in the Passive Voice. This feature of the language can result in ambiguity. For instance, the following examples each have more than one possible meaning.

  • e.g. The doors will be closed at nine o'clock.

  • The train was stopped at midnight.

In the first example, will be closed could be the Simple Future of the verb to be, followed by the predicate adjective closed. In this case, the sentence would have the meaning that at nine o'clock, the doors will not be open. On the other hand, will be closed could be the Simple Future Passive of the verb to close. In this case, the sentence would imply that at nine o'clock, someone will close the doors.Similarly, in the second example, was stopped could be the Simple Past of the verb to be, followed by the predicate adjective stopped. In this case, the sentence would indicate that at midnight, the train was not moving. On the other hand, was stopped could be the Simple Past Passive of the verb to stop. In this case, the sentence would imply that at midnight, someone stopped the train.

DEGREES OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives can express degrees of modification:

  • Gladys is a rich woman, but Josie is richer than Gladys, and Sadie is the richest woman in town.

The degrees of comparison are known as the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. (Actually, only the comparative and superlative show degrees.) We use the comparative for comparing two things and the superlative for comparing three or more things. Notice that the word than frequently accompanies the comparative and the word the precedes the superlative. The inflected suffixes -er and -est suffice to form most comparatives and superlatives, although we need -ier and -iest when a two-syllable adjective ends in y (happier and happiest); otherwise we use more and most when an adjective has more than one syllable.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

rich

richer

richest

lovely

lovelier

loveliest

beautiful

more beautiful

most beautiful

Certain adjectives have irregular forms in the comparative and superlative degrees:

Irregular Comparative and Superlative Forms

good

better

best

bad

worse

worst

little

less

least

muchmanysome

more

most

far

further

furthest

Be careful not to form comparatives or superlatives of adjectives which already express an extreme of comparison — unique, for instance — although it probably is possible to form comparative forms of most adjectives: something can be more perfect, and someone can have a fuller figure. People who argue that one woman cannot be more pregnant than another have never been nine-months pregnant with twins.

According to Bryan Garner, "complete" is one of those adjectives that does not admit of comparative degrees. We could say, however, "more nearly complete." I am sure that I have not been consistent in my application of this principle in the Guide (I can hear myself, now, saying something like "less adequate" or "more preferable" or "less fatal"). Other adjectives that Garner would include in this list are as follows:

absolute

impossible

principal

adequate

inevitable

stationary

chief

irrevocable

sufficient

complete

main

unanimous

devoid

manifest

unavoidable

entire

minor

unbroken

fatal

paramount

iunique

final

perpetual

universal

ideal

preferable

whole

Be careful, also, not to use more along with a comparative adjective formed with -er nor to use most along with a superlative adjective formed with -est (e.g., do not write that something is more heavier or most heaviest).

The as — as construction is used to create a comparison expressing equality:

  • He is as foolish as he is large.

  • She is as bright as her mother.

PREMODIFIERS WITH DEGREES OF ADJECTIVES

Both adverbs and adjectives in their comparative and superlative forms can be accompanied by premodifiers, single words and phrases, that intensify the degree.

  • We were a lot more careful this time.

  • He works a lot less carefully than the other jeweler in town.

  • We like his work so much better.

  • You'll get your watch back all the faster.

The same process can be used to downplay the degree:

  • The weather this week has been somewhat better.

  • He approaches his schoolwork a little less industriously than his brother does.

And sometimes a set phrase, usually an informal noun phrase, is used for this purpose:

  • He arrived a whole lot sooner than we expected.

  • That's a heck of a lot better.

If the intensifier very accompanies the superlative, a determiner is also required:

  • She is wearing her very finest outfit for the interview.

  • They're doing the very best they can.

Occasionally, the comparative or superlative form appears with a determiner and the thing being modified is understood:

  • Of all the wines produced in Connecticut, I like this one the most.

  • The quicker you finish this project, the better.

  • Of the two brothers, he is by far the faster.

THE ORDER OF ADJECTIVES IN A SERIES

It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say "little brown house" and not "brown little house" or why we say "red Italian sports car" and not "Italian red sports car." The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. Most other languages dictate a similar order, but not necessarily the same order. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive, because the order often seems quite arbitrary (if not downright capricious). There is, however, a pattern. You will find many exceptions to the pattern in the table below, but it is definitely important to learn the pattern of adjective order if it is not part of what you naturally bring to the language.

The categories in the following table can be described as follows:

  • Determiners — articles and other limiters. See Determiners

  • Observation — postdeterminers and limiter adjectives (e.g., a real hero, a perfect idiot) and adjectives subject to subjective measure (e.g., beautiful, interesting)

  • Size and Shape — adjectives subject to objective measure (e.g., wealthy, large, round)

  • Age — adjectives denoting age (e.g., young, old, new, ancient)

  • Color — adjectives denoting color (e.g., red, black, pale)

  • Origin — denominal adjectives denoting source of noun (e.g., French, American, Canadian)

  • Material — denominal adjectives denoting what something is made of (e.g., woolen, metallic, wooden)

  • Qualifier — final limiter, often regarded as part of the noun (e.g., rocking chair, hunting cabin, passenger car, book cover)

 

This chart is probably too wide to print on a standard piece of paper. If you click HERE, you will get a one-page duplicate of this chart, which you can print out on a regular piece of paper.

It would be folly, of course, to run more than two or three (at the most) adjectives together. Furthermore, when adjectives belong to the same class, they become what we call coordinated adjectives, and you will want to put a comma between them: the inexpensive, comfortable shoes. The rule for inserting the comma works this way: if you could have inserted a conjunction — and or but — between the two adjectives, use a comma. We could say these are "inexpensive but comfortable shoes," so we would use a comma between them (when the "but" isn't there). When you have three coordinated adjectives, separate them all with commas, but don't insert a comma between the last adjective and the noun (in spite of the temptation to do so because you often pause there):

a popular, respected, and good looking student

See the section on Commas for additional help in punctuating coordinated adjectives.

CAPITALIZING PROPER ADJECTIVES

When an adjective owes its origins to a proper noun, it should probably be capitalized. Thus we write about Christian music, French fries, the English Parliament, the Ming Dynasty, a Faulknerian style, Jeffersonian democracy. Some periods of time have taken on the status of proper adjectives: the Nixon era, a Renaissance/Romantic/Victorian poet (but a contemporary novelist and medieval writer). Directional and seasonal adjectives are not capitalized unless they're part of a title:

We took the northwest route during the spring thaw. We stayed there until the town's annual Fall Festival of Small Appliances.

See the section on Capitalization for further help on this matter.

COLLECTIVE ADJECTIVES

When the definite article, the, is combined with an adjective describing a class or group of people, the resulting phrase can act as a noun: the poor, the rich, the oppressed, the homeless, the lonely, the unlettered, the unwashed, the gathered, the dear departed. The difference between a Collective Noun (which is usually regarded as singular but which can be plural in certain contexts) and a collective adjective is that the latter is always plural and requires a plural verb:

  • The rural poor have been ignored by the media.

  • The rich of Connecticut are responsible.

  • The elderly are beginning to demand their rights.

  • The young at heart are always a joy to be around.

ADJECTIVAL OPPOSITES

The opposite or the negative aspect of an adjective can be formed in a number of ways. One way, of course, is to find an adjective to mean the opposite — an antonym. The opposite of beautiful is ugly, the opposite of tall is short. A thesaurus can help you find an appropriate opposite. Another way to form the opposite of an adjective is with a number of prefixes. The opposite of fortunate is unfortunate, the opposite of prudent is imprudent, the opposite of considerate is inconsiderate, the opposite of honorable is dishonorable, the opposite of alcoholic is nonalcoholic, the opposite of being properly filed is misfiled. If you are not sure of the spelling of adjectives modified in this way by prefixes (or which is the appropriate prefix), you will have to consult a dictionary, as the rules for the selection of a prefix are complex and too shifty to be trusted. The meaning itself can be tricky; for instance, flammable and inflammable mean the same thing.

A third means for creating the opposite of an adjective is to combine it with less or least to create a comparison which points in the opposite direction. Interesting shades of meaning and tone become available with this usage. It is kinder to say that "This is the least beautiful city in the state." than it is to say that "This is the ugliest city in the state." (It also has a slightly different meaning.) A candidate for a job can still be worthy and yet be "less worthy of consideration" than another candidate. It's probably not a good idea to use this construction with an adjective that is already a negative: "He is less unlucky than his brother," although that is not the same thing as saying he is luckier than his brother. Use the comparative less when the comparison is between two things or people; use the superlative least when the comparison is among many things or people.

  • My mother is less patient than my father.

  • Of all the new sitcoms, this is my least favorite show.

SOME ADJECTIVAL PROBLEM CHILDREN

In both casual speech and formal writing, we frequently have to choose between the adjective good and the adverb well. With most verbs, there is no contest: when modifying a verb, use the adverb.

He swims well.

He knows only too well who the murderer is.

However, when using a linking verb or a verb that has to do with the five human senses, you want to use the adjective instead.

How are you? I'm feeling good, thank you.

After a bath, the baby smells so good.

Even after my careful paint job, this room doesn't look good.

Many careful writers, however, will use well after linking verbs relating to health, and this is perfectly all right. In fact, to say that you are good or that you feel good usually implies not only that you're OK physically but also that your spirits are high.

  • "How are you?"

"I am well, thank you."

OTHER ADJECTIVAL CONSIDERATIONS

Review the section on Compound Nouns and Modifiers for the formation of modifiers created when words are connected: a four-year-old child, a nineteenth-century novel, an empty-headed fool.

Review the section on Possessives for a distinction between possessive forms and "adjectival labels." (Do you belong to a Writers Club or a Writers' Club?)

Adjectives that are really Participles, verb forms with -ing and -ed endings, can be troublesome for some students. It is one thing to be a frightened child; it is an altogether different matter to be a frightening child. Do you want to go up to your professor after class and say that you are confused or that you are confusing? Generally, the -ed ending means that the noun so described ("you") has a passive relationship with something — something (the subject matter, the presentation) has bewildered you and you are confused. The -ing ending means that the noun described has a more active role — you are not making any sense so you are confusing (to others, including your professor).

The -ed ending modifiers are often accompanied by prepositions (these are not the only choices):

  • We were amazed at all the circus animals.

  • We were amused by the clowns.

  • We were annoyed by the elephants.

  • We were bored by the ringmaster.

  • We were confused by the noise.

  • We were disappointed by the motorcycle daredevils.

  • We were disappointed in their performance.

  • We were embarrassed by my brother.

  • We were exhausted from all the excitement.

  • We were excited by the lion-tamer.

  • We were excited about the high-wire act, too.

  • We were frightened by the lions.

  • We were introduced to the ringmaster.

  • We were interested in the tent.

  • We were irritated by the heat.

  • We were opposed to leaving early.

  • We were satisfied with the circus.

  • We were shocked at the level of noise under the big tent.

  • We were surprised by the fans' response.

  • We were surprised at their indifference.

  • We were tired of all the lights after a while.

  • We were worried about the traffic leaving the parking lot.

A- ADJECTIVES

The most common of the so-called a- adjectives are ablaze, afloat, afraid, aghast, alert, alike, alive, alone, aloof, ashamed, asleep, averse, awake, aware. These adjectives will primarily show up as predicate adjectives (i.e., they come after a linking verb).

  • The children were ashamed.

  • The professor remained aloof.

  • The trees were ablaze.

Occasionally, however, you will find a- adjectives before the word they modify: the alert patient, the aloof physician. Most of them, when found before the word they modify, are themselves modified: the nearly awake student, the terribly alone scholar. And a- adjectives are sometimes modified by "very much": very much afraid, very much alone, very much ashamed, etc.

VERB

Is a word (part of speech) that usually denotes an action (bring, read), an occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand). Depending on the language,

Verbs have two important functions:

Some verbs put static objects into motion while other verbs help to clarify the objects in meaningful ways, for examples:

THE PREPOSITION

Prepositions are the words that indicate location. Usually, prepositions show this location in the physical world, for example:

The puppy is on the floor. The puppy is in the trashcan.

The puppy is beside the phone

He's in the jailhouse now." (Where) The word in is a preposition. The word jailhouse is a noun. The noun is called the object of the preposition. This prepositional phrase provides a sense of location, a sense of where something is located. The quoted words are part of a song from the movie, Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?

ORATIONS

PREPOSITIONS

I put your book in my locker.

Where

I am in my car, and I have a flat tire.

where

He was arrested for jaywalking.

Why

I came with Camile.

Who

With perseverance she will become the best gymnast

How

I was with her when the announcement was made.

Who

I want a candy bar with peanuts.

What kind

SOME PREPOSITION OF PLACE

PPOSITION OF MOVEMENT

On

Behind

In Front

Down

In Back

Up

Between

A long

Next To

Across

Beside

Out Off

Among

Through

Against

Over

Above

Around

A Cross From

Towards

Under

A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. In itself, a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. For instance, when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takes on a modifying role, acting as an adjective or an adverb, locating something in time and space, modifying a noun, or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened.

Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it.

You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk.All of this happens, of course, in time: during the class, before the class, until the class, throughout the class, after the class, etc. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood [another adverbial construction].

Those words in bold blue font are all prepositions. Some prepositions do other things besides locate in space or time — "My brother is like my father." "Everyone in the class except me got the answer." — but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. It is possible for a preposition phrase to act as a noun — "During a church service is not a good time to discuss picnic plans" or "In the South Pacific is where I long to be" — but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing

Is it any wonder that prepositions create such troubles for students for whom English is a second language? We say we are at the hospital to visit a friend who is in the hospital. We lie in bed but on the couch. We watch a film at the theater but on television. For native speakers, these little words present little difficulty, but try to learn another language, any other language, and you will quickly discover that prepositions are troublesome wherever you live and learn. This page contains some interesting (sometimes troublesome) prepositions with brief usage notes. To address all the potential difficulties with prepositions in idiomatic usage would require volumes, and the only way English language learners can begin to master the intricacies of preposition usage is through practice and paying close attention to speech and the written word. Keeping a good dictionary close at hand (to hand?) is an important first step.

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME: AT, ON, AND IN

We use at to designate specific times./The train is due at 12:15 p.m.

We use on to designate days and dates./My brother is coming on Monday./We're having a party on the Fourth of July.

We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year./She likes to jog in the morning./It's too cold in winter to run outside./He started the job in 1971./He's going to quit in August.

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE: AT, ON, AND IN

We use at for specific addresses./Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.

We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc./Her house is on Boretz Road.

And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents)

  • .She lives in Durham.

  • Durham is in Windham County.

  • Windham County is in Connecticut.

Prepositions of Location: in, at, and onand No Preposition

IN

AT

ON

NO

(the) bed*

class*

the bed*

PREPOSITION

the bedroom

home

the ceiling

downstairs

the car

the library*

the floor

downtown

(the) class*

the office

the horse

inside

the library*

school*

the plane

outside

school*

work

the train

upstairsuptown

* You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations.

PREPOSITIONS OF MOVEMENT: TO AND NO PREPOSITION

We use to in order to express movement toward a place./They were driving to work together./She's going to the dentist's office this morning.

Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you./We're moving toward the light./This is a big step towards the project's completion.

With the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, we use no preposition./Grandma went upstairs/Grandpa went home./They both went outside.

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME: FOR AND SINCE

We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years)./He held his breath for seven minutes./She's lived there for seven years./The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.

We use since with a specific date or time./He's worked here since 1970./She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

PREPOSITIONS WITH NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, AND VERBS.

Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. (In fact, in other languages, such as German, they would have become one word.) This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs.

NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS

approval of

fondness for

need for

awareness of

Grasp of

participation in

belief in

Hatred of

reason for

concern for

Hoper for

respect for

confusion about

Interest in

success in

desire for

love of

understanding of

ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS

afraid of

fond of

proud of

angry at

happy about

similar to

aware of

interested in

sorry for

capable ofcareless about

jealous ofmade of

sure oftired of

familiar with

married to

worried about

VERBS and PREPOSITIONS

apologize for

give up

prepare for

ask about

grow up

study for

ask for

look for

talk about

belong to

look forward to

think about

bring up

look up

trust in

care for

make up

work for

find out

pay for

worry about

A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle. Please refer to the brief section we have prepared on phrasal verbs for an explanation.

UNNECESSARY PREPOSITIONS

In everyday speech, we fall into some bad habits, using prepositions where they are not necessary. It would be a good idea to eliminate these words altogether, but we must be especially careful not to use them in formal, academic prose.

  • She met up with the new coach in the hallway.

  • The book fell off of the desk.

  • He threw the book out of the window.

  • She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. [or use "in"]

  • Where did they go to?

  • Put the lamp in back of the couch. [use "behind" instead]

  • Where is your college at?

PREPOSITIONS IN PARALLEL FORM

When two words or phrases are used in parallel and require the same preposition to be idiomatically correct, the preposition does not have to be used twice./You can wear that outfit in summer and in winter./The female was both attracted by and distracted by the male's dance.

However, when the idiomatic use of phrases calls for different prepositions, we must be careful not to omit one of them./The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie./It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from every game he played./He was fascinated by and enamored of this beguiling woman.

Introducing your self

A simple way of starting a conversation is to introduce yourself. This may seem simple, but it is also an opportunity to intrigue the other person and get the conversation going.

Simple topics include your name, occupation, family and hobbies. More adventurous topics include some of the things you have done which are brave, daft or interesting.

A powerful approach, particularly in sales, is to include a description of what you can do for the other person.

Talking about yourself can be used to show your status and superiority, thus taking control of the conversation.

It can also be used to show that you are friendly and harmless. It helps you position yourself relative to the other person and also within their frames of reference; for example: Hello. I'm Jeff leaver, your union representative, I can help you with any, employment issues you have.

  • Names:

  • First Name:

A word or a combination of words by which a person, place, or thing, a body or class, or any object of thought is designated, called, or known.

Name offers world class domain name registration which includes industry leading customer service and tools. Our primary focus is to work in partnership with our customers to make registering and managing domain names easy.Picking the right name is one of the most important things an organization can do.

Example:

NAME

ORAIONS

Of a person:

My name is Jean

Of a city:

California, Colombia

Of a thing or object

Table, car, buss, plane

Of animal

Dog, caté, elephant

MIDDLE NAME

Is a name between your first name and your surname, middle names are often chosen by parents at the same time as the first name. Names that are popular as first names are also popular as middle names. However, some parents may use the middle spot to honor a relative or to use an unusual name that might have been a social burden to the child as a first name. Surnames are also sometimes given as middle names, usually to honor a relative. It is quite popular to use the mother"s name as the middle name. (A name that occurs between a person's first name and surname).Most of the time the middle name is given after a relative, like the mother, father, aunt, etc.

Example:

NAME

MIDDLE NAME

Sean

Paul

Ana

Maria

Jean

Carlos

 

LAST NAMES

A family name or last name is a type of surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs, (this name used to identify the members of a family)

A family name or last name is a type of surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs. The use of family names is widespread in cultures around the world. Each culture has its own rules as to how these names are applied and used.

Have you ever wondered about the meaning of your last name or where your family came from? What your ancestors did how they looked or where they lived? Surnames -- our last names.

Example

NAME

MIDDLE NAME

LAST NAME

Sean

Paul

Howard

Ana

Maria

bent

Jean

Carlos

Archbold

FAMILY

Families is a primary social group, a small community, in any society, typically consisting of a man and a woman, or any two individuals who wish to share their lives together in a long-term committed relationship with one another, raising offspring and usually reside in the same dwelling.

The collective body of persons who live in one house, and under one head or manager; a household, including parents, children.

Family is the main building block of a community; family structure and upbringing determines the social character and personality of any given society. - Family is where we all learn: love, caring, compassion, ethics, honesty, fairness, common sense, reason, peaceful conflict resolution and respect for ourselves and others, which are the vital fundamental skills, and family values, necessary to live an honorable and prospers life in harmony, in the world community.

DEFINITION OF FAMILY VALUES

To have a sense of Family Values is to have good thoughts, good intentions and good deeds, to love and to care for those whom we are close to and are part of our primary social group, our community, such as children, parents, other family members and friends. And to treat others with the same set of values, the same way we wish to be treated.

Family Values is to be a kind, caring, honorable, neighborly, generous, compassionate, fair, and a peace-loving people.

AGE

The time that a person or a thing has existed since birth or beginning or the length of time that one has existed; duration of life. The time of life when a person becomes qualified to assume certain civil and personal rights and responsibilities, usually at 18 or 21 years.

example:

Time that a person existed since boning

I have 20 th hears

Time that a person existed since bornin

I have 5 hears

Time that a person existed since bornin

I have 18 hears

WEIGHT

A portion or quantity weighing a definite or specified amount ten pounds weight of load. Quantity of matter as estimated by the balance, or expressed numerically with reference to some standard unit; as, a mass of stone having the weight of five hundred pounds. For example my weight is 65 KL

HEIGHT

The condition of being high; elevated position. The distance to which anything rises above its foot, above that on which in stands, above the earth, or above the level of the sea; altitude; the measure upward from a surface, as the floor or the ground, of animal, humans or structure.

Height of animal

Hath giraffe have 5 mt long

Height of person

I am is a basketball player, and I have 2 mt

Height of structure

This structure have 30 mt

Identifications card

One identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID) is any document which may be used to verify aspects of a person's identity  if issued in the form of a small, mostly standard-sized card, it is usually called an identity card (IC). In some countries the possession of a government-produced identity card is compulsory while in others it may be voluntary. In countries which do not have formal identity documents, informal ones may in some circumstances be required.

 A national identity card is a portable document, typically a plasticized card with digitally-embedded information, that someone is required or encouraged to carry as a means of confirming their identity.

In the absence of a formal identity document, some countries accept driving licenses as the most effective method of proof of identity. Most countries accept passports as a form of identification; for example: What is your identification card No? My identification card No is 23249224

PASSPORT CARD:

Also called Travel document is used by a competent authority showing the bearer"s origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is Permission to pass; a document given by the competent officer of a state, permitting the person therein named to pass or travel from place to place, without molestation, by land or by water.

It is a document that we Usually use to go to a next country so they can identify our nationality,

NATIONALITY:

People having common origins or traditions and often comprising a nation; "immigrants of the same nationality often seek each other out"; "such, the status of belonging to a particular nation by birth or naturalization, the status of belonging to a particular nation by origin, birth, or naturalization. A people having common origins or traditions and often constituting a nation; for example: what is your nationality? My nationality is Colombia.

ADDRESS

to direct (spoken or written words) to someone, is to speak to or write to (to address an audience) sometimes used reflexively he addressed himself to both of us, to write the destination on (a letter or parcel) , to use a proper form in speaking to address the judge as "Your Honor", to apply (oneself) or direct (one's energies), to deal or cope with; handle (problems, issues, etc.)

A formal communication, either written or spoken a discourse, a speech, a formal application to any one, a petition, a formal statement on some subject or special occasion, as, an address of thanks, an address to the voters, the place to which mail, etc. can be sent to someone; place where someone lives or works what is writing on an envelope, parcel, etc. showing its destination, direction or superscription of a letter, or the name, title, and place of residence of the person addressed; for example:

PHONE NUMBER

The numerical code that is used in calling a particular telephone.

A telephone number or phone number is a sequence of numbers used to call from one telephone line to another in a telephone network; for example: my phone number is 617-635-5300 or 617-343-4425

We usually have and note book or a appointment book were we note down the phone numbers that we call

LIKE AND DISLIKES

LIKE:

Is to have an inclination or a preference, to find pleasant or attractive; enjoy and to want to have; for example: I would like some coffee.

Having the same, or nearly the same, appearance, qualities, or characteristics; resembling; similar to; similar; alike; often with in and the particulars of the resemblance; as, they are like each other in features, complexion, and many traits of character.

DISLIKE

This consider in tree factor

  • NOT LIKE SOMEBODY OR SOMETHING: 

to consider something or somebody disagreeable or unpleasant

  • DISFAVOR:

an inclination to withhold approval from some person or group

  • DISAPPROVING FEELING: 

an attitude or feeling of disapproval or lack of enjoyment

  • SOMETHING NOT LIKED:

something that is considered disagreeable

Example:

not like somebody or something:

I don"t like may base

Disfavor:

May teacher of English don"t like me

disapproving feeling:

my dislike of him was instinctive

 

Something not liked

I don"t like the orange fruut

Empresa

CONCEPTO:

La empresa se entiende por una actividad organizada, la cual busca la administración o distribución de cualquier bien o prestación de servicios para la comunidad, está organizada por un administrador que toma las decisiones oportunas para poder alcanzar unos objetivos ya planteados.

Las empresas se pueden clasificar de la siguiente manera:

  • Sectores Económicos

  • El origen de su capital.

  • Su Tamaño

  • Conformación de su capital

  • El pago de impuestos

  • El número de propietarios

  • La función social

  • La forma de explotación

POR SECTORES ECONOMICOS

  • EXTRACTIVAS:

Dedicadas a explotar recursos naturales.Ejemplo: Cerrejón, ECOPETROL, Minas de Oro del Chocó.

  • SERVICIOS:

Entregarle sus servicios o la prestación de estos a la comunidad. Ejemplo: Clínicas, salones de belleza, transportes.

  • COMERCIAL

Desarrolla la venta de los productos terminados en la fábrica. Ejemplo: Cadenas de almacenes Ley, La 14, Carrefour etc.

  • AGROPECUARIA:

Explotación del campo y sus recursosEjemplo: Hacienda, agroindustria.

  • INDUSTRIAL:

Transforma la materia prima en un producto terminado.Ejemplo: Acerías Paz del Río, Ingenio Risaralda.

POR SU TAMAÑO

  • GRANDE:

Su constitución se soporta en grandes cantidades de capital, un gran número de trabajadores y volumen de ingreso al año, su número de trabajadores excede a 100 personas. Ejemplo: Comestibles La Rosa, Postobón, Gino Pascalli, etc.).

  • MEDIANA:

Su capital, el número de trabajadores y el volumen de ingresos son limitados y muy regulares, número de trabajadores superior a 20 personas e inferior a 100.

  • PEQUEÑAS:

Se dividen a su vez en.

  • PEQUEÑA:

Su capital, número de trabajadores y sus ingresos son muy reducidos, el número de trabajadores no excede de 20 personas.

  • MICRO:

Su capital, número de trabajadores y sus ingresos solo se establecen en cuantías muy personales, el número de trabajadores no excede de 10 (trabajadores y empleados).

  • FAMIEMPRESA:

Es un nuevo tipo de explotación en donde de la familia es el motor del negocio convirtiéndose en una unidad productiva.

POR EL ORIGEN DEL CAPITAL

  • PÚBLICO:

Su capital proviene del Estado o Gobierno. Ejemplo: Alcaldía de Pereira, Gobernación de Risaralda.

  • PRIVADO:

Son aquellas en que el capital proviene de particulares. Ejemplo: Sociedades comerciales.

  • ECONOMÍA MIXTA:

El capital proviene una parte del estado y la otra de particulares. Ejemplo: Bancafé, La Previsora S.A.

POR LA EXPLOTACIÓN Y CONFORMACIÓN DE SU CAPITAL.

  • MULTINACIONALES:

En su gran mayoría el capital es extranjero y explotan las actividad en diferentes países del mundo (globalización). Ejemplo: Nicole.

  • GRUPOS ECONÓMICOS:

Estas empresas explotan uno o varios sectores pero pertenecen al mismo grupo de personas o dueños. Ejemplo: Alejandro Echavarria, Manuel Mejia Jaramillo, Carlos Ardilla Lulle, Manuel Carvajal Sinisterra, Jimmy Mayer, Eduardo Santos, Hernando Caicedo Caicedo, Fernando Mazuera, Julio Mario Santo Domingo y Luis Carlos Sarmiento Angulo.

  • NACIONALES:

El radio de atención es dentro del país normalmente tienen su principal en una ciudad y sucursales en otras.

  • LOCALES:

Son aquellas en que su radio de atención es dentro de la misma localidad.

POR EL PAGO DE IMPUESTOS

  • PERSONAS NATURALES:

El empresario como Persona Natural es aquel individuo que profesionalmente se ocupa de algunas de las actividades mercantiles, la Persona Natural se inscribe en la Cámara de Comercio, igualmente se debe hacer con la Matrícula del Establecimiento Comercial.

Están obligados a pagar impuestos, su declaración de renta aquí le corresponde a trabajadores profesionales independientes y algunos que ejercen el comercio.

Los libros que se deben inscribir ante Cámara y Comercio son: Libro de Registro de Operaciones Diarias, Libro de Inventario y de Balances y Libro Mayor y de Balances.

  • SUCESIONES ILÍQUIDAS:

En este grupo corresponde a las herencias o legados que se encuentran en proceso de liquidación.

  • RÉGIMEN SIMPLIFICADO:

Pertenecen los comerciantes que no llenan requisitos que Exige la DIAN. Ejemplo: Las pequeñas tiendas, no están obligados a llevar contabilidad.

  • RÉGIMEN COMÚN:

Empresas legalmente constituidas y sobrepasan las limitaciones del régimen simplificado, deben llevar organizadamente su contabilidad.

  • GRAN CONTRIBUYENTE:

Agrupa el mayor número de empresas con capitales e ingresos compuestos en cuantías superiores a los miles de millones de pesos. Son las más grandes del país.

POR EL NÚMERO DE PROPIETARIOS

  • INDIVIDUALES:

Su dueño es la empresa, por lo general es él solo quien tiene el peso del negocio.UNIPERSONALES:

Se conforma con la presencia de una sola Persona Natural o Jurídica, que destina parte de sus activos para la realización de una o varias actividades mercantiles.

Su nombre debe ser una denominación o razón social, seguida de la expresión "Empresa Unipersonal" o de la sigla "E.U", si no se usa la expresión o su sigla, el contribuyente responde con todos sus bienes aunque no estén vinculados a la citada empresa. SOCIEDADES:

Todas para su constitución exigen la participación como dueño de más de una persona lo que indica que mínimo son dos (2) por lo general corresponden al régimen común.

POR LA FUNCIÓN SOCIAL

  • CON ÁNIMO DE LUCRO:

Se constituye la empresa con el propósito de explotar y ganar más dinero.

  • TRABAJO ASOCIADO:

Grupo organizado como empresa para beneficio de los integrantes E.A.T.

  • SIN ÁNIMO DE LUCRO:

el objeto de estas empresas se fundamenta en al prestación de un servicio como lo es la salud y la educación.

  • ECONOMÍA SOLIDARIA:

En este grupo pertenecen todas las cooperativas sin importar a que actividad se dedican lo más importante es el bienestar de los asociados y su familia.

  • SEGÚN FORMA JURÍDICA:

Estas empresas están reguladas por la legislación del país, pueden ser: Unipersonal, sociedad colectiva, cooperativas, comanditarias, sociedades anónimas, sociedades limitadas

  • SOCIEDADES DE HECHO:

Están pretende conseguir un fin especifico por cierto tiempo: Uniones temporales, Patrimonio autónomo, Cuentas en participación, Consorcios

  • SEGÚN SECTOR COOPERATIVO:

Estas prestan un servicio para la comunidad, pueden ser: Cajas de compensación familiar, Fundaciones beneficiarias, Sindicatos, Fondos de empleados, Fondos de inversión

Actividad económica

Conjunto de acciones que tienen por objeto la producción, distribución y consumo de bienes y servicios generados para satisfacer las necesidades materiales y sociales. Dentro de ella se pueden distinguir tres fases principales:

  • La producción de bienes y servicios.

  • La distribución, que acerca esos productos al posible comprador.

  • El consumo, es decir, la compra de esos bienes y servicios

Los países se emplean específicamente en alguna actividad económica lo que permite clasificarlos, y de acuerdo a la capacidad de producción y eficiencia de dicha actividad se generara su riqueza, así que se puede decir que Las actividades económicas se dividen en tres sectores:

ACTIVIDADES ECONÓMICAS PRIMARIAS

Son aquellas que se dedican puramente a la extracción de los recursos naturales, ya sea para el consumo o para la comercialización.

Están clasificadas como primarias : la agricultura, la ganadería, la producción de madera y peces, la minería, etc. agropecuarias: tierras bajas, altiplanicies, oasis de riego y plantaciones modernas. No agropecuarias: explotación forestal, minería y pesca

ACTIVIDADES ECONÓMICAS SECUNDARIAS

Este sector se refiere a las actividades industriales, aquellas que transforman los recursos del sector primario.

Dentro del mismo, las industrias ligeras producen bienes de consumo inmediato como alimentos, zapatos, bolsas, juguetes, las pesadas maquinaria y otros insumos para otros sectores. las manufactureras se encargan de la elaboración de productos más complejos a través de la transformación de las materias primas.

Son las que transforman las materias primas en productos elaborados, muchas de ellas se llevan a cabo en industrias como por ejemplo para fabricar zapatos.

ACTIVIDADES ECONÓMICAS TERCIARIAS

Estas actividades son las que más producen la comodidad y la satisfacción de una necesidad humana. Su trabajo es la prestación de algún servicio, la comunicación o el turismo. Se encuentran comerciantes, maestros, médicos, banqueros, ferrocarrileros, restauranteros y demás en esta rama.

ESTRUCTURA ORGANICO – FUNCIONAL

Toda empresa cuenta en forma implícita o explícita con cierto juego de jerarquías y atribuciones asignadas a los miembros o componentes de la misma. En consecuencia se puede establecer que la estructura organizativa de una empresa es el esquema de jerarquización y división de las funciones componentes de ella. Jerarquizar es establecer líneas de autoridad (de arriba hacia abajo) a través de los diversos niveles y delimitar la responsabilidad de cada empleado ante solo un superviso inmediato. Esto permite ubicar a las unidades administrativas en relación con las que le son subordinadas en el proceso de la autoridad. El valor de una jerarquía bien definida consiste en que reduce la confusión respecto a quien da las órdenes y quien las obedece. Define como se dividen, agrupan y coordinan formalmente las tareas en los puestos.

Toda organización cuenta con una estructura, la cual puede ser formal o informal. La formal es la estructura explicita y oficialmente reconocida por la empresa. La estructura informal es la resultante de la filosofía de la conducción y el poder relativo de los individuos que componen la organización, no en función de su ubicación en la estructura formal, sino en función de influencia sobre otros miembros.

UNA ESTRUCTURA ORGANIZACIONAL – FUNCIONAL DEBE ESTAR FORMADA DE LA SIGUENTE MANERA:

  • Especialización del Trabajo.

  • Departamentalización.

  • Cadena de mando.

  • Extensión del Tramo de Control.

  • Centralización y Descentralización.

  • Formalización.

  • ESPECIALIZACIÓN DEL TRABAJO O DIVISIÓN DE LA MANO DE OBRA

Se sustenta en el hecho de que en lugar de que un individuo realice todo el trabajo, este se divide en cierto número de pasos y cada individuo termina uno de los pasos.

  • DEPARTAMENTALIZACIÓN:

Una vez divididos los puestos por medio de la especialización del trabajo, se necesita agruparlos a fin de que se puedan coordinar las tareas comunes. La Departamentalización es el proceso que consiste en agrupar tareas o funciones en conjuntos especializados en el cumplimiento de cierto tipo de actividades. Generalmente adopta la forma de gerencias, departamentos, secciones.

La calidad de una estructura organizativa depende mucho de la calidad de la Departamentalización y de la consecuente delegación de funciones y autoridad para el desarrollo eficiente de las mismas. La Departamentalización implica el riesgo de tener que lograr la coordinación entre las unidades definidas.

Existen dos modelos de Departamentalización: por Procesos y por Objetivos.

DEPARTAMENTALIZACIÓN POR PROCESOS

Se agrupan las actividades por procesos o actividades, maximizando el aspecto especialización, es frecuente en el área de fabricación donde separan el trabajo en varios procesos.

DEPARTAMENTALIZACIÓN POR OBJETIVOS

Se divide cada sector en subsectores que cuentan con iguales objetivos que la unidad superior a la cual reportan, con lo cual se optimiza la coordinación. Existen varias variantes las cuales se clasifican en función del concepto agrupador de funciones en sectores, entre las cuales podemos nombrar:

  • DEPARTAMENTALIZACIÓN POR PRODUCTOS:

Es usada por empresas que fabrican muchos productos o productos muy diferentes.

  • DEPARTAMENTALIZACIÓN POR ZONA GEOGRÁFICA:

Suele ser para el marketing. Es más bien geográfica ya que la Departamentalización se efectúa por territorios o regiones de acción.

LA CADENA DE MANDO:

Es una línea continua de autoridad que se extiende desde la cima de la organización hasta el escalón más bajo y define quien informa a quien. Contesta preguntas de los empleados como: -¿A quien acudo si tengo un problema? Y ¿Ante quien soy responsable? En la cadena de mando tenemos presente dos importantes conceptos: Autoridad y Unidad de Mando. La autoridad se refiere al derecho inherente de una posición administrativa para dar órdenes y esperar que se cumplan y la Unidad de Mando ayuda a preservar el concepto de una línea ininterrumpida de autoridad, si se rompe la unidad de mando un subordinado podría tener que atender a demandas o prioridades conflictivas de varios superiores.

TRAMO DE CONTROL:

Determina en gran parte el número de niveles y administradores que tiene una organización.

CENTRALIZACIÓN Y DESCENTRALIZACIÓN:

La centralización se refiere al grado hasta el cual la toma de decisiones se concentra en un solo punto de la organización, la Descentralización se da cuando hay aportes de personal de nivel inferior o se le da realmente la oportunidad de ejercer su discrecionalidad en la toma de decisiones, en una organización descentralizada se pueden tomar acciones con mayor rapidez para resolver problemas, mas personas contribuyen con información.


Partes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11


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