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El Impacto de la Globalización Económica en la Industria de Diamantes (página 5)

Enviado por Rashi Bhatnagar



Partes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5


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Autor:

Rashi Bhatnagar

Maestr?a en Relaciones Internacionales

Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad del salvador

Buenos Aires, Septiembre de 2008

[1] Phillipe Le Billon, The Political Ecology of War, Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts,?Political Geography,?Vol.20, No.5, 2001, p?gs. 561-584.

[2] Se?or de la Guerra ?? Un t?rmino traducido literalmente del ingl?s "warlord", que hace referencia a una persona con poder que tiene de facto el control militar de un ?rea subnacional, gracias a un grupo de fuerzas armadas leales al se?or de la guerra y no a la autoridad central. Tambi?n puede referirse a alguien que sigue el ideal de que la guerra es necesaria y que tiene los medios y la autoridad para declararla.

[3] David J. Francis, Conflict Diamonds and the Analysis of African Conflicts: A Framework For Conflict Prevention, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, 2001, p?g. 3

[4] ibid

[5] Stathis Kalyvas, New and Old Civil Wars: A Valid Distinction?, World Politics, Vol. 54, No.1, 2001, p?gs. 106-107.

[6] David J. Francis, Conflict Diamonds and the Analysis of African Conflicts: A Framework For Conflict Prevention, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, 2001, p?g.3

[7] UNITA - União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola / Unidad Nacional para la Independencia Total de Angola.

[8] David J. Francis, Conflict Diamonds and the Analysis of African Conflicts: A Framework For Conflict Prevention, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, 2001, p?g.3

[9] ibid

[10] Joseph Stiglitz, Globalization and Its Discontents, London: Penguin, 2002; Pierre Bourdieu, Acts of Resistance: Against Tyranny of the Market, New York: New Press, 2002.

[11] Traducido por la autora: "is not simply a breakdown in a particular system, but a way of creating an alternative system of profit, power and even protection", en David Keen, The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars, Oxford University Press, 1998, p?g. 11.

[12] Warlord Fundamentlism: Fundamentalismo dirigido por el Se?or de la Guerra o un Jefe Militar. Es una persona con poder y control militar de un ?rea subnacional, fundamentado en la lealtad de las fuerzas armadas a aquel jefe.

[13] Mark Duffield, Global Governance and The New Wars: The Merging of Development and Security, London: Zed Books, 2001, p?gs. 138-139.

[14] Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars; Mark Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars: The Merging of Security and Development, London, Zed Books, 2001.

[15] Jan Aart Scholte, Globalization: a critical introduction, Macmillan Press Ltd, London, 2000, p?g. 247.

[16] Warlordism ?? La formaci?n de un Estado por Se?ores de Guerra.

[17] Michael E. Brown, Ethnic and Internal Conflict. Causes and Implications, Turbulent Peace, edited by Crocker, Hampson and Aall, Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace, p?g.211.

[18] ibid

[19] Christian Dietrich, Power Struggles in the Diamond Fields, in Jakkie Cilliers and Chrisitian Dietrich, eds., Angola??s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds, Pretoria: Institute of Security Studies, 2000, p?gs. 173-194

[20] Jake H. Sherman, Profit vs. Peace: The Clandestine Diamond Economy of Angola, Journal of International Affairs 53, no. 2, 2000, p?gs. 699-719.

[21] RUF ?? Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone

[22] ECOMOG ?? Economic Community of West African States Cease-Fire Monitoring Group / El Grupo Monitoreo de Alto de Paro para la Comunidad Econ?mica de Estados del Oeste de ?frica

[23] Charles Carter, The Political Economy of Conflict and UN Intervention: Rethinking the Critical Cases of Africa, en Karen Ballentine & Jake Sherman (eds), The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed & Grievance, International Peace Academy, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, August 2003, p?g. 31

[24] ibid

[25] Kate Meagher, A Back Door to Globalisation? Structural Adjustment, Globalisation and Transborder Trade in West Africa", Review of African Political Economy Vol. 30, No. 95, Marzo, 2003.

[26] Alejandro Portes y William Haller, The Informal Economy en N. Smelser y R. Swedberg (eds.) Handbook of Economic Sociology, 2nd edition, Russell Sage Foundation, 2005.

[27] Traducido por la autora: ["…] there is a general tendency to postulate that the non-formal markets, whether in Africa or Eastern Europe and Asia, are the result of a combination of changing political regimes, social transitions, and economic opportunism. The belief is that as these countries settle down in the course of normal state development, their economies will become increasingly defined by state-regulated institutions. In this way, while illegal goods and service rings (i.e., mercenaries and prostitution) will always exist in the countries of the world, they compromise a marginal part of the world??s real economy", Carolyn Nordstrom, Shadows and Sovereigns, Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2000, p?gs. 35-54.

[28] Ibid

[29] ibid

[30] Manuel Castells, La Sociedad Red (The Rise of Network Society), La Era de la Informaci?n, Vol. 1, Alianza, 1996, p?g.470

[31] World Bank, World Bank Report, Washington D.C., World Bank, 1981.

[32] World Bank, World Bank Report, Washington D.C., World Bank, 1989

[33] Conferencia de World Peace Foundation y el WPF Programa sobre Conflictos Intraestatales, en cooperaci?n con el Centro Carr de la Pol?ticas de Derechos Humanos y el Proyecto sobre Justicia en Tiempo de Transici?n, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2001.

[34] Seg?n el informe del Tribunal de Expertos en Sierra Leona de la ONU, "En una conferencia intragubernamental de octubre de 2000 sobre diamantes y conflictos en Pretoria, un evaluador de diamantes y su consultor de comercio estimaron que un 20% del comercio mundial en diamantes crudos es por naturaleza il?cita", UNSC Panel of Experts, [S/2000/1195], 28.

[35] UNSC Panel of Experts, [S/2000/1195], 28.

[36] Mark Duffield, Globalization, Transborder Trade and War Economies, en Berdal y Malone (ed.), Greed and Grievance: Economic Agenda of Civil Wars, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2000, p?g.84.

[37] Paul Collier, Africa: Geography and Growth, Centre for the Study of African Economies, Oxford University, 2006, p?g. 3.

[38] Michael Pugh & Neil Cooper, War Economies in a Regional Context: Challenges and Transformation, Project of the International Peace Academy, 2004, p?g. 21.

[39] Indra de Soysa, The Resource Curse: Are Civil Wars Driven By Rapacity or Paucity?, en Mats Berdal y David Malone (eds.) Greed & Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

[40] ibid.

[41] Los recursos integrados siguen siendo explotados y est?n directamente involucrados en los conflictos. Los recursos prospectivos no est?n explotados pero pueden contribuir indirectamente en los conflictos, y sus partidarios esperan explotarlos en el futuro.

[42] Phillipe Le Billon, The Political Economy of War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict, Political Geography no. 20, 2001, p?g. 561-584.

[43] Paul Collier, Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and their Implications for Policy, Turbulent Peace, editado por Crocker, Hampson y Aall, Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace, p?g. 151

[44] Paul Collier, Doing Well out of War. Informe presentado en la conferencia de Agendas Econ?micas en Guerras Civiles, Londres, Abril 26-27, 1999. p?g. 9

[45] El t?rmino "Dutch Disease" se refiere al fen?meno experimentado en la econom?a holandesa como efecto de la producci?n del petr?leo en el Mar Norte.

[46] Poly-Normativismo ?? Derivado de la palabra inglesa, poly-normativism, la cual esta vinculada con sistemas culturales que coexisten de forma moderna y tradicional. La consecuencia de tal coexistencia resulta en conflictos no resueltos entre culturas incompatibles.

[47] Donal Cruise O Brien, Modernization, Order, and the Erosion of a Democratic Ideal, American Political Science 1960-70. Editado por David Lehmann Development theory. Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. London, 1979.

[48] Jeffrey Sachs y Andrew Warner, Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth, NBER Working Paper 5398. Boston: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1997, p?g. 19

[49] ibid

[50] Rentier State ?? Un Estado Rentista

[51] Jeffrey Sachs y Andrew Warner, Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth, NBER Working Paper 5398. Boston: National Bureau of Economic Research, 19, p?g. 5

[52] El cuadro construido por Paul Collier est? reducido de modo de mostrar los tres pa?ses bajo investigaci?n. Dicho an?lisis contiene datos solamente hasta 2001.

[53] El gasto militar como porcentaje del PBI esta estimado desde 1988 hasta 2002 seg?n las estad?sticas disponibles. < http://first.sipri.org/non_first/milex.php> [Consulta en 30-04-2008].

[54] El gasto militar como porcentaje del PBI esta estimado desde 1996 hasta 2005 seg?n las estad?sticas disponibles. [Consulta en 30-04-2008].

[55] Philippe Le Billon, The political economy of resource wars, en J. Cilliers y Christian Dietrich (eds), Angola??s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds", Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2000, p?g. 25.

[56] Mike Bourne, Conflict Diamonds: Roles, Responsibilities and Responses, Peace Studies Paper, University of Bradford, 2001, p?g. 5

[57] Anna Stabrawa, Environmental Endowment and Conflict: The Case of Diamonds in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Watson Institute of International Studies, Brown University, Febrero de 2003, p?g. 7.

[58] ibid

[59] D. Snow, Uncivil Wars: International Security and New Internal Conflicts, Boulder, Co: Lynne Rienner, 1996, p?gs. 26, 38.

[60] Traducido por la autora: tribally based warfare erupts where ethnic and other hatreds had long been officially suppressed but never been extinguished in the hearts and minds of populations, ibid.

[61] Paul Collier, Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and their Implications for Policy, Turbulent Peace, edited by Crocker, Hampson and Aall, Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace, p?g. 144-156.

[62] Anna Stabrawa, Environmental Endowment and Conflict: The Case of Diamonds in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Watson Institute of International Studies, Brown University, Febrero 2003, p?g. 13.

[63] Traducido por la autora: "The point of the war may not actually have been to win it, but to engage in profitable crime under the cover of warfare", Ian Smillie, Lansana Gberie, and Ralph Haleton, "The Heart of the Matter: Sierra Leone", Diamonds and Human Security. Partnership Africa Canada, Enero 2000. p?g. 3. [Consulta: 13-05-2008].

[64] A continuaci?n, en el cap?tulo 3, habr? una evaluaci?n m?s profunda de la situaci?n de guerra, tomando en cuenta los factores mencionados en esta secci?n.

[65] Traducido por la autora: "Violence is now deliberately targeted at civilians rather than armed groups, and at entire groups rather than individuals. In the conflicts in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Mozambique, Northern Uganda, Sudan and Angola, violence has taken appalling forms. Mutilation, torture of women and children, violent rituals and the forcible involvement of relatives, children and spouses in killing and rape are used as a means of waging war primarily by militia groups and by some state proxies. In some instances, such violence is part of ritual that binds militia groups together. Extreme violence can be used as a means of humiliation or revenge. More frequently, it is used as a means of intimidation, as is the case with the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) in Sierra Leone. Here, mutilation was brutally applied as part of a strategy to stop people from voting or from gathering the harvest or to spread control over territory by sheer terror and fear, thus avoiding the need to fight". Department for International Development (DFID), The Causes of Conflict in Africa, Consultation document prepared in consultation with Foreign and Commonwealth office, Ministry of Defence, UK Government, 2000, parr?fo 24.

[66] Thomas Homer-Dixon, Environment, Scarcity and Violence, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999, p?gs. 5, 7 y 177.

[67] Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars, Stanford University Press, 1999, Cap?tulos 6 y 7.

[68] Michael Ross, What Do We Know about Natural Resources and Civil War?, Journal of Peace Research, International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, 2004, p?g. 338.

[69] H. Richard Dietrich, Ethical Considerations for Multinationals in Angola, en J. Cilliers & Christian Dietrich (eds), Angola??s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds, Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2000, p?g. 239.

[70] Charles Carter, The Political Economy of Conflict and UN Intervention: Rethinking the Critical Cases of Africa, en Karen Ballentine & Jake Sherman (eds), The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed & Grievance, International Peace Academy, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, Agosto 2003, p?g. 25.

[71] J Cilliers & P Mason (eds), Peace, Profit or Plunder?: The Privatization of Security in War-torn African Societies, Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, 1999; AF Musah, & JK Fayemi (eds), Mercenaries. An African Security Dilemma, Pluto Press, London, 2000.

[72] Traducido por la autora: "De Beers does not have a business interest in informal mining, but we cannot sit idly by and watch millions of African miners and their families suffer. While we may not have all the solutions or expertise, we hope to work in partnership with those that do to give this program the best chance of success". DeBeers Canada, DE BEERS TO HELP REDUCE POVERTY AMONG ALLUVIAL DIAMOND MINERS, 2006. [Consulta en 13-05-2008].

[73] Traducido por la autora: "Eighty percent of the population lives on 30 cents a day or less, with billions of dollars going out the back door and into the pockets of mining companies". Amy Goodman, DRC: The Invisible War, publicado por Truthdig.com, 2008. [Consulta en 10-05-2008].

[74] H. Richard Dietrich, Ethical Considerations for Multinationals in Angola, en J. Cilliers y Christian Dietrich (eds), Angola??s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds", Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2000, p?g. 238.

[75] Traducido por la autora: "there is only one social responsibility of business ?? to increase its profits". M Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom, University of Chicago Press, 1962, p?g.163.

[76] Traducido por la autora: "Rebellions either have the objective of natural resource predation, or are critically dependent upon natural resource predation in order to pursue other objectives. These, rather than objective grievances, are the risk factors which conflict prevention must reduce if it is to be successful", en Paul Collier, Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and their Implications for Policy, World Bank, 15 de Junio de 2000, disponible en: [Consulta en 30-04-2008].

[77] Traducido por la autora: Since the 19th century, when the world looks at Congo it sees a pile of riches with some black people inconveniently sitting on top of them. They eradicate the Congolese people so they can possess the mines and resources. They destroy us because we are an inconvenience en "DRC??s Economic War". [Consulta: 13-05-2008].

[78] V?ase Anexo 2 para un mapa completo de la Rep?blica Democr?tica de Congo.

[79] Charles Carter, The Political Economy of Conflict and UN Intervention: Rethinking the Critical Cases of Africa, en Karen Ballentine & Jake Sherman (ed.), The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance, International Peace Academy, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, August 2003, p?g. 25

[80] Congo Civil War. [Consulta: 18-04-2008].

[81] DRC??s Economic War. [Consulta: 18-04-2008].

[82] Rassemblement Congolais pour la D?mocratie ?? Concentraci?n Congoles para la Democracia Mouvement de Lib?ration du Congo ?? Movimiento para la Liberaci?n de Congo. Pierre Englebert, Why Congo Persists: Sovereignty, Globalization and the Violent Reproduction of a Weak State, QEH Working Paper No.95, Department of Politics, 2003.p?g. 5

[83] DRC??s Economic War. [Consulta: 18-04-2008].

[84] "Congo Civil War". [Consulta: 20-04-2008].

[85] Joe Bavier,. "Congo war-driven crisis kills 45,000 a month: study", Reuters, 22 de Enero, 2008. [Consulta: 01-05-2008].

[86] "Congo Civil War" [Consulta: 01-05-2008].

[87] "1,000 a day dying in Congo, agency says", 10 de Diciembre, 2004. CBC noticias. [Consulta: 01-05-2008].

[88] < http://www.worldbank.org> [Consulta 02-05-2008].

[89] Ceteris Paribus - T?rmino en lat?n usado en el an?lisis econ?mico para variar un factor mientras que el resto de factores se mantienen constantes.

[90] James Fearson & David Laitin, Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil War, American Political Science Review, Vol. 97, No. 1, 2003, p?g. 83

[91] Anna Stabrawa, Environmental Endowment and Conflict: The Case of Diamonds in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Watson Institute of International Studies, Brown University, Febrero 2003, p?g. 3

[92] Louis Goreux, Conflict Diamonds, Africa Region Working Paper, Series No. 13, Washington, The World Bank, March, 2001, p. 3; Belgian Senatorial Commission of Inquiry on the Great Lakes: , Noviembre, 2001, p?g. 3.

[93] Zairianization ?? una ley creada por Mobutu en 1971, la cual le otorg? a ?l y sus asociados 2000 empresas extranjeras.

[94] Pierre Englebert, Why Congo Persists: Sovereignty, Globalization and the Violent Reproduction of a Weak State, QEH Working Paper No.95, Department of Politics, 2003.p?g. 10

[95] Josh Latimer, Dictator of the Month: July 2006. [Consulta: 01-06-2008].

[96] Ingrid Samset, Conflict of Interest or Interests in Conflict? Diamond & War in the DRC, Review of African Political Economy No. 93/94, ROAPE Publications Ltd., 2002, p?g. 469.

[97] Informe sobre la RDC. [Consulta 13-05-2008].

[98] African Economic Outlook 2005-2006, p?g. 220. [Consulta: 15-05-2008].

[99] ibid

[100] Informe sobre la RDC. [Consulta 13-05-2008].

[101] ibid

[102] Estad?sticas del Fondo Monetario Internacional.

[103] Informe sobre la RDC. [Consulta 13-05-2008].

[104] Musifiky Mwanasali, The View from Below, en Mats Berdal and David Malone eds. Greed & Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000, p?g. 143.

[105] DRC??s Economic War. [Consulta: 12-5-2008].

[106] Ingrid Samset, Conflict of Interest or Interests in Conflict? Diamond & War in the DRC, Review of African Political Economy No. 93/94, ROAPE Publications Ltd., 2002, p?g. 471

[107] ibid

[108] Christian Dietrich, Mineral Exports by RCD-Goma in 2000, Central Africa Minerals and Arms Research Bulletin (ed.), 2001

[109] United Nations, Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of Congo, S/2001/357, Nueva York, Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas, 12 de Abril, 2001. [Consulta: 17-05-2008].

[110] A mediados del a?o 2000, el gobierno de la RDC concedi? un monopolio de exportaci?n de diamantes a IDI. Algunas fuentes revelan que el contrato estipul? una bonificaci?n de US$ 20 millones para el gobierno, mientras que IDI s?lo pag? US$ 3 millones. Es decir, el monopolio aprovech? la situaci?n otorgada por la RDC, resultando en una desventaja para el pa?s. Sin embargo, el contrato permiti? a la RDC mayor seguridad militar. Ingrid Samset, Conflict of Interest or Interests in Conflict? Diamond & War in the DRC, Review of African Political Economy No. 93/94, ROAPE Publications Ltd., 2002, p?g. 473.

[111] Belgian Senatorial Commission of Inquiry on the Great Lakes (BCS), "Audition du professeur J. Gorus", 8 de Febrero 2002, p?g. 5. [Consulta: 14-05-2008].

[112] Comiex ??Compagnie mixte d??import-export. La RDC y Zimbabue entraron en una empresa conjunta en 1998 mediante un negocio en uni?n con Operation Sovereign Legitimacy (Osleg) de Zimbabue y Comiex de la RDC.

[113] Ingrid Samset, Conflict of Interest or Interests in Conflict? Diamond & War in the DRC, Review of African Political Economy No. 93/94, ROAPE Publications Ltd., 2002, p?g.477.

[114] Pierre Englebert, Why Congo Persists: Sovereignty, Globalization and the Violent Reproduction of a Weak State, QEH Working Paper No.95, Department of Politics, 2003, p?g.15.

[115] Traducido por la autora: "There is an urgent need for the diamond business to fundamentally change the way in which it works, because it is clearly unacceptable for diamonds to be used as a major source of revenue in conflict." How many people, when buying a diamond for their loved one have any idea of the horrific price that Angolans have had to pay?", Presidente Gooch, Global Witness, en Angola: Diamond Trade and War. [Consulta: 21-07-2008].

[116] V?ase Anexo 3 para un mapa completa de Angola.

[117] Lloyd R. Lewis III, Angola Diamond Mining and War, 14 de Junio de 1997. [Consulta: 05-07-2008].

[118] Charles Carter, The Political Economy of Conflict and UN Intervention: Rethinking the Critical Cases of Africa, en Karen Ballentine & Jake Sherman (ed.), The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance, International Peace Academy, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, August 2003, p?g. 23.

[119] Human Rights Watch, Angola Unravels: The Rise and Fall of the Lusaka Peace Process, Nueva Cork: Human Rights Watch, 1999, p?g.15. < http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/angola/Angl998-03.htm> [Consulta: 06-07-2008].

[120] Phillipe Le Billon, Resource Wealth and Angola??s Uncivil Wars, en Cynthia J. Arnson y I. William Zartman (eds.). Rethinking the Economics of War. The Intersection of Need, Creed, and Greed, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, p?g. 116.

[121] Ingrid J. Tamm, Diamonds in Peace and War: Severing the Conflict-Diamond Connection, WPF Programa sobre Conflictos Intraestatales, CARR Center for Human Rights Policy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2002, p?g.11

[122] US Department of State, Background Note: Angola. [Consula: 07-07-2008].

[123] US Department of State, Background Note: Angola. [Consula: 08-07-2008].

[124] Angola??s Diamond Mining Case Issue. [Consulta: 09-07-2008].

[125] El rango del ?ndice del Desarrollo Humano mide Angola como un pa?s de mediano a bajo desarrollo.

[126] Aleisha Stevens y David Carment, COMMERCE & CONFLICT: Angola & DiamondWorks, Country Indicators for Foreign Policy (CIFP) Project, The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University, Informe Final, Junio de 2005. [Consulta: 11-07-2008].

[127] US Department of State, Angola Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1996, 30 de Enero de 1997. [Consulta: 14-07-2008].

[128] Tony Addison, "Growth Makes Poor Richer, But Still Not Rich Enough", en Financial Times, Carta al Editor, 30 de Enero de 2001. [Consulta: 14-07-2008].

[129] Traducido por la autora: "...diamonds are UNITA??s lifeblood. Without them UNITA wouldn??t be able to maintain its options...[such as] military reserves so that the government doesn??t destroy us", en Phillipe Le Billon, Resource Wealth and Angola??s Uncivil Wars, en Cynthia J. Arnson y I. William Zartman (eds.). Rethinking the Economics of War. The Intersection of Need, Creed, and Greed, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, p?g.125.

[130] Entrevista por Philippe Le Billon con Abel Chivukuvuku en 2001, en Phillipe Le Billon, Resource Wealth and Angola??s Uncivil Wars, en Cynthia J. Arnson y I. William Zartman (eds.). Rethinking the Economics of War. The Intersection of Need, Creed, and Greed, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005, p?g. 132.

[131] Philippe Le Billon, Angola??s Political Economy of War: The Role of Oil and Diamonds, 1974-2000, African Affairs, 2001, p?g. 61.

[132] Las cifras indicando las ventas de la UNITA no est?n disponibles despu?s de 2000 porque el gobierno Angole?o tom? control de la mayor?a de las minas de diamantes y las ventas il?citas no fueron registradas.

[133] Esta informaci?n fue investigada y encontrada por Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) Country Report, 4th Quarter 1996, disponible en Africa Policy E-Journal, Angola: Diamond Trade and War. [Consulta: 06-07-2008].

[134] Garimpeiros ?? Un minero artesanal o excavador de diamantes trabajando solo o bajo el control de patrocinadores armados que explotan la miner?a sin autorizaci?n estatal, de Christian Dietrich, Porous borders and diamonds, en J. Cilliers y Christian Dietrich (eds), Angola??s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds", Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2000, p?g. 317.

[135] Ingrid J. Tamm, Diamonds in Peace and War: Severing the Conflict-Diamond Connection, WPF Programa sobre Conflictos Intraestatales, CARR Center for Human Rights Policy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2002, p?g. 9.

[136] Ingrid J. Tamm, Diamonds in Peace and War: Severing the Conflict-Diamond Connection, WPF Programa sobre Conflictos Intraestatales, CARR Center for Human Rights Policy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2002, p?g. 9

[137] ibid

[138] ibid, p?g. 8

[139] Phillipe Le Billon, Angola??s war economy, en J. Cilliers y Christian Dietrich (eds), Angola??s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds", Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2000, p?g. 34.

[140] Diamantes kimberlitas ?? La kimberlita es una roca ?gnea y b?sica de la que se obtienen los diamantes (tambi?n se dan en otro tipo de roca conocido como lampro?ta). Se encuentran a grandes profundidades y en la superficie del planeta, pero se convierten r?pidamente en grafito bajo condiciones de altas temperaturas y bajas presiones en la mayor?a de las erupciones, en El papel del CO2 en la estructura de los diamantes. [Consulta: 13-07-2008].

[141] Ian Spears, Newsflashes Angola: Notes from the Angolan Development Network, en Southern African Report Archive, Vol. 14, No. 4, Agosto de 1999, p?gs. 26-30. [Consulta: 16-07-2008].

[142] Aleisha Stevens y David Carment, COMMERCE & CONFLICT: Angola & DiamondWorks, Country Indicators for Foreign Policy (CIFP) Project, The Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University, Informe Final, Junio de 2005, p?g. 12. [Consulta: 11-07-2008].

[143] ibid

[144] Phillipe Le Billon, The political economy of resource wars, en J. Cilliers y Christian Dietrich (eds), Angola??s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds", Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2000, p?g. 36

[145] Phillipe Le Billon, The real (war) economy of Angola, en J. Cilliers y Christian Dietrich (eds), Angola??s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds", Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2000, p?g. 220.

[146] Johan Peleman, Mining for Serious Trouble: Jean-Raymond Roulle and his Corporate Empire Project, en Abdel-Fatau Musah y J. Kayode Fayemi, eds., Mercenaries: An African Security Dilemma. London: Pluto Press, 2000, p?g.162.

[147] Phillipe Le Billon, The real (war) economy of Angola, en J. Cilliers y Christian Dietrich (eds), Angola??s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds, Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2000, p?g. 229.

[148] ibid

[149] Kenneth Good, The Social Consequences of Diamonds Dependency in Botswana, informe presentado en el African Study Centre, Leiden, Pa?ses Bajos, 2006, p?g. 2. [Consulta: 15-05-2008].

[150] ibid, p?g. 3.

[151] Entrevista, Nicky Oppenheimer, chairman of DeBeers, por Terry Macalister, The Guardian, Londres, 2 de Julio, 2003.

[152] Kenneth Good, The Social Consequences of Diamonds Dependency in Botswana, informe presentado en el African Study Centre, Leiden, Pa?ses Bajos, 2006, p?g. 3. [Consulta: 15-05-2008].

[153] Roy Laishley, Botswana: new challenges to success, Africa Recovery, Diciembre 1992-Febrero 1993, p?g. 16.

[154] UNDP, Human Development Report 1996, Oxford University press, Nueva York, 1996, p?gs.147, 191.

[155] Republic of Botswana, National Development Plan 1997/8-2002/03. Government Printer, Gaborone, August 1997, p?g. 17.

[156] Ibid

[157] Pelani Siwawa-Ndai Some facts and Figures about the Quality of Life in Botswana, en Doreen Nteta, Janet Hermans con Pavla Jeskova, Poverty and Plenty: The Botswana Experience. Botswana Society, Gaborone, 1997, p?g. 28; Botswana Institute for Development Policy Analysis (BIDPA), Study of Poverty and Poverty Alleviation in Botswana, vol.1, Ministry Finance and Development Planning, Gaborone, 1997, p?g. 21.

[158] Roy Laishley, Botswana: new challenges to success, Africa Recovery, Diciembre de 1992 hasta Febrero de 1993, p?g. 20.

[159] Catherine Hill y D. Nelson Mokgethi, Botswana: Macroeconomic Management of Commodity Booms, 1975-86, en el Banco Mundial, Successful Development in Africa, The World Bank, Washington, DC, 1989.

[160] Malcom Wallis, Bureaucracy, Macmillan press, Londres, 1989.

[161] Adrian Leftwich, Bringing Politics Back in: Towards a Model of the Developmental State, Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 31, No.3, 1995, p?g. 418

[162] UNDP. [Consulta: 28-05-2008].

[163] Michael Ross, "The Natural Resource Curse: How Wealth Can Make You Poor", en Bannon y Collier (eds.), Natural Resources and Violent Conflict, Washington, DC, The World Bank, 2003, p?g. 25.

[164] Kenneth Good, Realizing Democracy in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, Pretoria, Africa Institute, 1997.

[165] UNDP, Human Development Report 2005, p?g. 285-286

[166] y [Consulta: 30-05-2008].

[167] Las calculaciones son el promedio de los a?os medidos en [Consulta: 30-05-2008].

[168] Colin Bradford, East Asian Models: Myths and Lessons? en Jerry Lewis y Valerie Kallab, Development Strategies Reconsidered. Transaction Books, New Brunswick, 1986, p?g. 118.

[169] Susan E. Rice, Corinne Graff y Janet Lewis, Poverty and Civil War: What policymakers Need to Know, Global Economy and Development Working Paper, The Brookings Institution, Washington DC, Diciembre 2006, p?g. 8.

[170] ibid

[171] Traducido por la autora: "$1,000 less in income corresponds to 36 percent greater odds of [conflict] outbreak," en James D. Fearon y David D. Laitin, Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil War, American Political Science Review, 97:1, 2003, p?gs. 75-90.

[172] J. Clark Leith, Why Botswana Prospered, McGill-Queen??s University Press, 2005, p?g. 4, y [Consulta: 29-05-2008].

[173] Collier, Hoeffler y Rohner anotan que los rebeldes violentos gastan mucho m?s que un partido estatal opositor. Para ilustrar el ejemplo de Angola y la RDC, utilizo la explicaci?n destacada por los investigadores sobre los Tigres Tamiles, quienes gastaron 10,000 veces m?s del PBI que el partido mayor opositor de Reino Unido, el Partido Conservativo. Ver Paul Collier, Anke Hoeffler, and Dominic Rohner, "Beyond Greed and Grievance: Feasibility and Civil War," Center for the Study of African Economies Working Paper, 10, 7 de Agosto de 2006.

[174] James D. Fearon y David D. Laitin, Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil War, American Political Science Review, 97:1, 2003, p?gs. 75 y 76.

[175] Ibid, p?g. 80.

[176] Osei Hwedi, The State and Development in Southern Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Botswana and Mauritius with Angola, Malawi and Zambia, African Journal Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 1, The Online Journal of African Studies, 2001. [Consulta: 18-05-2008].

[177] ibid

[178] Shawn McCormick, The Angolan Economy, The Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC, 1994, p?g. 2

[179] Anthony Pereira, The Neglected Tragedy: The Return to War in Angola, 1992-93, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 32, No.1, 1994, p?g. 12.

[180] Shawn McCormick, The Angolan Economy, The Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC, 1994, p?gs. 3-4.

[181] Michael Ross, Natural Resources and Civil War: An Overview with Some Policy Options, Informe preparado para la conferencia "The Governance of Natural Resources Revenues", UCLA, Departamento de Ciencias Pol?ticas, apoyado por el Banco Mundial y la Agence Francaise de development, Paris, Diciembre de 2002, p?g, 32.

[182] ibid

[183] Ian Bannon y Paul Collier, Natural Resources and Conflict, y Michael Ross, The Natural Resource Curse: How Wealth Can Make You Poor, cap?tulos en Bannon y Collier (eds.), Natural Resources and Violent Conflict, Washington, DC, The World Bank, 2003, p?gs. 2-3 y 17.

[184] Kenneth Good, The Social Consequences of Diamonds Dependency in Botswana , informe presentado en el African Study Centre, Leiden , Pa?ses Bajos, 2006, p?gs. 8-9. [Consulta: 15-05-2008].

[185] Wim van Binsbergen, Botswana??s Ethnic Structure. [Consulta: 12-06-2008].

[186] Traducido por la autora: "We have a right to talk about our oppression and nobody can [stop us] doing that. We will not stop until we get what we want", en Kenneth Good, The Social Consequences of Diamonds Dependency in Botswana, informe presentado en el African Study Centre, Leiden , Pa?ses Bajos, 2006, p?gs. 9. [Consulta: 15-05-2008].

[187] Kenneth Good, The Social Consequences of Diamonds Dependency in Botswana, informe presentado en el African Study Centre, Leiden, Pa?ses Bajos, 2006, p?g. 11. [Consulta: 15-05-2008].

[188] The Economist, The African Exception, Marzo de 2002. [Consulta: 13-06-2008].

[189] Caleb Edwards, [Consulta: 12-06-2008].

[190] Traducido por la autora: To remove the source of conflict it is necessary to remove the prize which all actors are fighting for, that is, complete control of the state, its resources, and its population. The lower the stakes, the smaller and less violent the conflicts. From this it follows that the direction of change necessary to "save" sub-Saharan countries is towards decentralization. International agreements on development with autocratic leaders are doomed to failure. The international community should, therefore, pressure African countries to break the monopoly on power and resources which is concentrated in the hands of the few. Caleb Edwards. [Consulta: 12-06-2008].

[191] Jenny Clover, Botswana: Future Prospects and the Need for Broad-based Development, African Security Analysis Programme, Situation Report. Pretoria, Institute for Strategic Studies, Septiembre de 2003, p?gs. 7-8.

[192] ibid

[193] William Reno, Shadow Status and the Political economy of Civil Wards, en Berdal y Malone (ed.), Greed and Grievance: Economic Agenda of Civil Wars, Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2000, p?gs. 43-68.

[194] Richard K. Betts, ed., Conflict after the Cold War: Arguments on Causes of War and Peace, Nueva York: Macmillan, 1994, p?g. 174.

Partes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5


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