U.S. Signs with Peru and Columbia
March 31, 2006
This analysis is based on the preliminary text of the U.S./Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, which is still in the process of legal review, and on summaries of the U.S./Columbia Trade Promotion Agreement. A more complete analysis will follow when the preliminary text of the U.S./Columbia agreement becomes available.
On November 18, 2003, the U.S. Trade Representative officially notified Congress that it was initiating negotiations for an Andean Free Trade Agreement with Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia. Because of massive street demonstrations and civil unrest about U.S. investment policy related to water services and natural gas, Bolivia moved to "observer status" in the negotiations in July 2005. On December 7, 2005, the United States concluded a trade promotion agreement with Peru. This put pressure on Columbia and Ecuador to sign similar agreements. Columbia signed a deal on February 27, 2006. Negotiations continue with the Ecuadorian trade ministry, which like Bolivia on a smaller scale has faced political opposition to an agreement with the United States in Congress and in the form of massive civil unrest, particularly among indigenous peoples, which has paralyzed transport and commerce in the highlands and threatened to topple the regime of President Palacio.
The Andean FTA, at least in economic terms, is potentially more significant than the recently ratified Dominican Republic--Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA). According to USTR, "The four countries combined have a population of about 93 million people and a GDP of about $463 billion on a purchasing power parity basis." But, as the Carnegie Endowment reports," The Andean economies import only $8.1 billion a year from the U.S., which is relatively little for the size of their economies: the DR-CAFTA countries with half the total Gross Domestic Product, import $12.6 billion annually from the United States." The economic importance of protections for U.S. investors in the Andean FTA also is potentially significant. According to USTR, "The stock of U.S. foreign direct investment in the four countries was $4.5 billion in 2002." And, that investment could increase substantially as U.S. firms explore and seek to extract the valuable oil, natural gas, and minerals of the Andean region. Among South American countries, Ecuador, for example, is already the second largest supplier of oil for the United States, after Venezuela.
Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia currently enjoy special access to export textiles and most other commodities into the U.S. market under the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), which is set to expire in December 2006. If they are to retain this access to the U.S. market, the four Andean countries were told by the United States that they must agree to a comprehensive free trade agreement with the United States, reducing tariffs on a broad range of U.S. products and services and providing additional protection for U.S. investors. The United States has sought, in particular, to:
Substantially increase market access for U.S. agricultural goods;
Protect U.S. intellectual property rights in ways that exceed World Trade Organization (WTO) standards;
Increase market access exports of services, such as energy, water, infrastructure construction, and telecommunications; and
Increase protection for the property and contract rights of U.S. investors, particularly in oil, gas, minerals, and other extractive industries.
Tratado de Libre Comercio Andino:
EEUU firma con Perú y Colombia
Marzo 31, 2006
Este análisis esta basado en el texto preliminar del Trade Promotion Agreement entre Perú y EEUU, el cual está aún en proceso de una revisión legal y así como los sumarios del texto con Colombia. Un análisis mas completo se hará con el texto preliminar del acuerdo entre Col y EEUU.
¿Cual es la Historia de las negociaciones de EEUU con los andinos?
En noviembre 18 de 2003, el U.S. Trade Representative oficialmente notificó al Congreso de su país, que estaba iniciando negociaciones para un Tratado de Libre comercio con Colombia, Perú, Ecuador y Bolivia. Debido a las masivas protestas en Bolivia en contra de la política de inversiones de EEUU en relación a los servicios de agua y gas natural, Bolivia asumió el estatus de "observador" en las negociaciones en julio de 2005. En diciembre 7 de 2005, EEUU concluyó el TLC con Perú. Esto presionó a Colombia y Ecuador a firmar acuerdos similares; Colombia lo hizo en febrero 27 de 2006. Las negociaciones continúan con Ecuador, país que como Bolivia, pero en una escala menor, ha enfrentado oposición política a través de marchas masivas de oposición indígena, que han paralizado el transporte y el comercio en las tierras altas amenazando incluso con derribar el régimen de Presidente Palacio.
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