Derechos y deberes de los adolescentes
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ready to pay for an extra unit ceases to cover the cost of the latter (Dupuit's condition). It also implies that each beneficiary must not contribute to the payment more than the monetary equivalent of its value to him, whereas their total contribution must not fall short of total cost. This is “benefit taxation”, but for implementation this tax can either be levied specifically in relation to this advantage (and eventually be ear-marked for the …ver más…
This allows us to gather easily the information necessary to produce the good, but not the one to set individual taxes (we would for instance gather the answers in an anonymous way). However, empirical experiences show that, de facto, people's answers do not differ much according to whether their payment is tied or not to their answers (Bohm, 1972). The political process is also often a notable source of information on the variables under consideration. And quasi political processes can also be set in order to help solve the problem; for instance, the right quantity of public good and corresponding taxes, compared to nothing, gain unanimity in a referendum.
Several types of social situations and psycho-social phenomena help to secure the spontaneous collective realization of public goods or, at least, the relatively truthful revelation of preferences for them. Simultaneous contributions with each contributor watching the others contribute, are possible in small groups, and, even in somewhat larger ones, the recurrence of similar situations allows retaliatory threats against free riding. But the most important are social norms and ethical behaviours (which are similarly necessary for private goods through the