Inseminacion artificial en aves

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Theriogenology 71 (2009) 200–213

Implementing artificial insemination as an effective tool for ex situ conservation of endangered avian species
J.M. Blancoa,*, D.E. Wildtb, U. Ho¨flec, W. Voelkerd, A.M. Donoghuee a Centro de Estudios de Rapaces Ibe´ricas, Sevilleja de la Jara 45671 Toledo, Spain b Conservation & Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, Front Royal, VA 22630, USA c Instituto de Investigacio´n en Recursos Cinege´ticos, IREC, Ciudad Real, Spain d SIA Comanche Nation, 73029 OK, USA e Poultry Production and Product Safety Research Unit, ARS, USDA, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA

Approximately 503 of the known
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However, there is a substantial need for consistently successful AI to assist in creating viable, self- sustaining populations. Of the known 9672 existing bird species, more than 5% are classified formally as
‘vulnerable’, ‘endangered’ or ‘critically endangered’
(i.e., almost 500 species are at serious risk for extinction) [6].
Although the highest priority always is securing species in nature, ex situ breeding has played an important role in recovering certain bird species. For example, nonprofit institutions produced and released
6000 captive-bred Peregrine falcons in 34 U.S. states from 1974 through 1997. That, combined with organized protection of nest sites and foraging habitats, resulted in one of the most successful species restorations programs ever [7]. Currently, other ex situ efforts are returning similarly spectacular species to nature (e.g., California condor, Mauritius kestrel,
Whooping crane, American bald eagle [8]).
However, clearly there are too few recovery programs where in situ conservation and ex situ breeding/research efforts are successfully linked.
Furthermore, there are even fewer examples where
AI has had a measurable impact. Nonetheless, there are important programs that now stand as models to show how assisted breeding can contribute to species recovery (e.g., Peregrine falcon, [7]; Houbara bustard
[9]). Most impressive have been efforts directed at the
Whooping crane,

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