Tema 1 oposiciones inglés

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TEMA 1
LA LENGUA COMO COMUNICACIÓN: LENGUAJE ORAL Y LENGUAJE ESCRITO. FACTORES QUE DEFINEN UNA SITUACIÓN COMUNICATIVA: EMISOR, RECEPTOR, FUNCIONALIDAD y CONTEXTO
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION: COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE.
2. LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION:
A.- Basic concepts in language
B.- study: I. Natural and artificial language
II. The linguistic sign: referent, signifier and signified; Saussure.
III. Competence vs. performance; Chomsky.
IV. Theories of language.
3.. LANGUAGE AS COMMUNICATION AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS: A Communicating vs. informing. B Characteristics of language.
4.. SPEECH VS. WRITING:
…ver más…
According to Trager, "a language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which the members of a society interact in terms of their total culture".
Finally, Hall defined language as "the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with each other by habitually used oral-auditory arbitrary symbols. "
These three definitions coincide in considering language as part of human behavior ("human method', "members of a society", "humans"). Besides, taking these definitions into consideration a distinction can be established between 'natural language' and 'artificial language', as for these three authors the term language implies the use of only oral symbols, and not the use of written ones. The term 'natural language' is used to distinguish languages spoken and signed (by hand signals and facial expressions) by humans for general-purpose communication from those languages created to meet some specific purpose -as for example traffic signs- which make up a system of communication by itself, acode -i.e. the Highway Code or the language for computer programming.
These languages are called 'artificial languages'.
When dealing with human languages we also have to make reference to Saussure's distinction between “langue” and “parole”. 'Langue' refers to the system of rules and conventions which is independent of individual users; 'parole' refers to the use of 'langue' in particular instances. The linguistic sign is

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