Teoria de la produccion y costos
The three genera of the gnetophytes are highly specialized to their respective environments, making it difficult to identify homologous characters. The three extant genera of gnetophytes, a “bizarre and enigmatic” trio, are likely aberrant members of the group, which was diverse and dominant in the Tertiary. Some synapomorphies of the gnetophytes include enveloping bracts around the ovules and microsporangia, and a micropylar projection of the outer membrane of the ovule that produces a pollination droplet.
Gnetum species are mostly woody climbers in tropical forests. However, the most well-known member of this group, Gnetum gnemon, is a tree. Its seeds are used to produce a crispy krupuk snack known as